高校生の教育期待に対する性別と出身階層の影響:学力に関する自己認知の媒介効果の検討 [in Japanese] Influences of Gender and Socioeconomic Status on the Educational Expectations of Japanese High School Students::A Test for the Mediation Effect of Students' Academic Self-Perception [in Japanese]
Access this Article
Search this Article
本稿の目的は, 学業面の主観的能力を表す「学力に関する自己認知」 (以下, 学力自己認知) という媒介変数の役割に着目した検討をとおして, 現代日本における教育達成の男女間格差・階層間格差の因果的メカニズムの解明に貢献することである. この目的を達するため, 学力自己認知の指標として学業的自己概念と学業的自己効力感を使用し, 「高校生の教育期待に対する性別と出身階層の影響を学力自己認知が媒介する」という仮説の検証を行った. PISA2003の日本調査データを用いて固定効果モデルによる分析を行った結果, (1) 男子は女子よりも教育期待が高く, 出身階層が高いほど教育期待は高いこと, (2) 数学の学力を統制したうえでも男子は女子に比べて数学の自己概念・自己効力感が高いこと, (3) 出身階層が高いほど数学自己効力感は高いこと, (4) 数学自己効力感は教育期待に対して数学の学力とは独立した正の効果をもつことが示された. (5) また, Sobel testによる間接効果の検定を行ったところ, 数学自己効力感を媒介した性別と出身階層の間接効果はいずれも有意であり, 「教育期待に対する性別と出身階層の影響を学力自己認知が媒介する」という仮説は数学自己効力感に関して支持された. 現代日本における教育達成の男女間格差・階層間格差の生成メカニズムを考えるうえでは, 学力自己認知 (特に学業的自己効力感) という媒介変数の役割に注目する必要がある.
This article examined the extent to which Japanese high school students' academic self-perception mediated the effects of gender and socioeconomic status on their educational expectations. In this study, students' academic self-perception was defined as their subjective ability in an academic domain and was measured by gauging math self-concept and math self-efficacy. The main hypothesis of this study predicted that the effects of gender and socioeconomic status on the educational expectations of high school students were mediated by their academic self-perceptions.<br>To test this and related hypotheses, the author analyzed Japanese data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) conducted in 2003 by OECD. In statistical analyses, school-level heterogeneity was controlled using the fixed effects regression model. The results of regression analyses showed that: first, boys and students from privileged families were likely to have higher educational expectations, second, boys had higher math self-concepts and self-efficacies compared with girls, third, socioeconomic status was positively correlated with math self-efficacy, fourth, math self-efficacy had a statistically significant positive effect on educational expectations while math self-concept did not, and fifth, the results of the Sobel test showed that the effects of gender and socioeconomic status on educational expectations were partially (but not completely) mediated by math self-efficacy.<br>The main hypothesis of this study was supported for math self-efficacy, which explained about 30% of the effect of gender and 5% of the effect of socioeconomic status on educational expectations. While the direct effects of gender and socioeconomic status remained significant even after taking into account the mediation effect of academic self-perception, academic self-efficacy partially explained the effects of gender and socioeconomic status on the educational expectations of Japanese high school students.
- Japanese Sociological Review
Japanese Sociological Review 65(3), 374-389, 2014
The Japan Sociological Society