細菌における高度不飽和脂肪酸含有リン脂質の生理機能  [in Japanese] Physiological Roles of Phospholipids Containing Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Bacteria  [in Japanese]

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Author(s)

Abstract

エイコサペンタエン酸(EPA)やドコサヘキサエン酸などの長鎖多価不飽和脂肪酸(PUFA)は,多様な生理活性を示す必須脂肪酸である。生体膜を構成するリン脂質のアシル鎖として存在するPUFAは膜の物理化学的特性を変化させることで,周辺の膜タンパク質の機能発現に関与していることが予想されるが,PUFAの機能発現機構の詳細は明らかではない。一方で,極地周辺や深海などの低温環境から単離された海洋性細菌の多くがPUFAを生産することが知られている。近年,高等生物に比べて単純な構造の細胞を形成するこれらの微生物を用いた研究により,PUFAが従来知られていなかった生理的役割を担っていることが明らかとなってきた。本稿では,南極海水より単離された低温菌におけるEPA生合成機構と,本菌の環境適応におけるEPAの生理機能について紹介する。

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid, are essential fatty acids for human, which provide various favorable effects on health, including anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. PUFA-containing phospholipids change the physicochemical properties of biological membranes and might modulate the function of membrane proteins. However, it is not fully understood how PUFA exerts their function. EPA and DHA are found in various bacteria isolated from cold environments, such as Polar Regions and deep sea, and are synthesized as an acyl chain of their membrane phospholipids. By using these bacteria, which have much simpler cell structure than eukaryotes, it was demonstrated that PUFA plays novel physiological roles in their environmental adaptation. Here, we describe the biosynthesis mechanism of EPA and its physiological role in cold adaptation of a bacterium isolated from Antarctic seawater. We propose that EPAcontaining phospholipids support the function of membrane proteins involved in cell division and membrane transport at low temperatures as a hydrophobic chemical chaperone.

Journal

  • Oleoscience

    Oleoscience 13(5), 221-229, 2013

    Japan Oil Chemists' Society

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130005122107
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA11503417
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1345-8949
  • NDL Article ID
    024661210
  • NDL Call No.
    Z74-C176
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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