Nosocomial infection and its molecular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance

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Author(s)

    • Xia Jufeng
    • Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery Division, Department of Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo
    • Gao Jianjun
    • Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Qingdao University
    • Tang Wei
    • Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery Division, Department of Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo

Abstract

Nosocomial infection is a kind of infection, which is spread in various hospital environments, and leads to many serious diseases (<i>e.g</i>. pneumonia, urinary tract infection, gastroenteritis, and puerperal fever), and causes higher mortality than community-acquired infection. Bacteria are predominant among all the nosocomial infection-associated pathogens, thus a large number of antibiotics, such as aminoglycosides, penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems, are adopted in clinical treatment. However, in recent years antibiotic resistance quickly spreads worldwide and causes a critical threat to public health. The predominant bacteria include Methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>, <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i>, <i>Klebsiella pneumoniae</i>, <i>Escherichia coli</i>, and <i>Acinetobacter baumannii</i>. In these bacteria, resistance emerged from antibiotic resistant genes and many of those can be exchanged between bacteria. With technical advances, molecular mechanisms of resistance have been gradually unveiled. In this review, recent advances in knowledge about mechanisms by which (<i>i</i>) bacteria hydrolyze antibiotics (<i>e.g</i>. extended spectrum β-lactamases, (<i>ii</i>) AmpC β-lactamases, carbapenemases), (<i>iii</i>) avoid antibiotic targeting (<i>e.g</i>. mutated vanA and <i>mecA</i> genes), (<i>iv</i>) prevent antibiotic permeation (<i>e.g</i>. porin deficiency), or (<i>v</i>) excrete intracellular antibiotics (<i>e.g</i>. active efflux pump) are summarized.

Journal

  • BioScience Trends

    BioScience Trends 10(1), 14-21, 2016

    International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130005133314
  • Text Lang
    ENG
  • ISSN
    1881-7815
  • Data Source
    J-STAGE 
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