貧困地域と非識字者への視点:テレビ草創期のNHKドキュメンタリーと地域社会研究  [in Japanese] Utilising Different Research Methods for the Study of a Depressed Fishing Community in the 1960s::TV Documentary and Folkloristic Study  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

本稿は, テレビ草創期のNHKドキュメンタリー・シリーズの2本の番組を取り上げ, 地域研究資料としての意義を考察した. これらの番組は, 1960年代に広島県因島の家船集落を取材したもので, 漁村の貧困と不就学児童の問題に焦点をあてている. このシリーズは, 民俗学の視点を参照して, 底辺層の生活に迫り, その人々が直面している社会的ジレンマを視聴者に問うという方針で制作された. これとほぼ同時期に, 同じ集落で, 宮本常一が参加した民俗学調査が実施された. これら2つの調査・取材は, いずれも民俗学的関心に基づいて実施されたものであるが, 見出した知見には相違がみられる.<br>テレビ・ドキュメンタリーは, 階層的視点が明確で, 貧困地域という集落特性を映像で実証的に示している点に意義がある. これによって, ミクロな地域社会の事象をマクロな社会構造に位置づけてとらえることが可能になった. しかし, その一方で, 民俗学調査報告書と比較すると, テレビ・ドキュメンタリーは, 該当地域に居住していた非識字者を貧困の視点でとらえる傾向がつよく, 非識字者の集団が保持していた口承文化の豊かさについて, 理解が浅い面があったことがわかる.<br>以上のように本稿は, 民俗学調査と比較することによって, テレビ・ドキュメンタリー番組を地域資料として利用する場合の長所および留意点を明らかにしたものである.

This study examines different perspectives demonstrated by two social researches conducted in the same fishing village in the 1960s. One of these was a study based on the folkloristic method and the other was a TV documentary.<br>Fishermen and their families have been living and working in their fishing-boats for generations in Innoshima, Hiroshima Prefecture. At the time of the study and documentary, poverty was widespread and educational opportunities were limited for some children as they were needed to assist in their family's fishing labour.<br>The staffs of NHK made two documentary programmes based on their research. They focused on the problems of poverty and social dilemmas.Moreover, they were particularly interested in the community children's home by social welfare. Presence of a clear sense of social stratification and economic inequality made the site valuable as a historical record.<br>On the other hand, the folkloristic study did not refer to the population of illiterate children in the village. Though literacy was low in fishermen's families, many fishing songs were preserved. The folklorists focused on the traditional lifestyle that was able to maintain a distinctive culture. The folkloristic study highlighted the great significance of oral history.<br>The findings of both studies are vital for a comprehensive understanding of a depressed fishing community in the 1960s.

Journal

  • Japanese Sociological Review

    Japanese Sociological Review 65(4), 486-503, 2015

    The Japan Sociological Society

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130005141116
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00109823
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Journal Type
    大学紀要
  • ISSN
    0021-5414
  • NDL Article ID
    026362268
  • NDL Call No.
    Z6-265
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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