高等学校における教えあい講座の実践:―― 教えあいの質と学習方略に対する効果 ――  [in Japanese] Effects of a High School Peer-Tutoring Program on the Quality of Students’ Interactions and Learning Strategy Use  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

学習者同士の教えあいは, 内容の理解だけでなく, 日常的な学習場面における効果的な学習方略の使用をも促す可能性がある。本研究では, 学習法の改善を企図した2つの教えあい講座の実践を報告した。2010年度の予備実践では, 理解することの重要性や教えあいのスキルを教授したにもかかわらず, 生徒の問いが表面的である, 教え手が聴き手の理解状態に配慮しないという問題が確認された。これらの問題は, 生徒が「断片的知識/解法手続きを一方的に教える」という教授-学習スキーマを保持するために生起したものと考えられた。そこで, 2012年度の本実践では, こうしたスキーマに働きかける指導の工夫を取り入れ, 「関連づけられた知識を相互的に教えあう」行動へと変容させることを目指した。高校1年生320名に対し, 講演を中心とした前半と2回の教えあいを中心とした後半(計6時間)の教えあい講座を行った。教えあいの発話と内容理解テストの分析から, 理解を目指したやり取りがなされ, 教えあった内容の理解が促進されたことが示された。また, 説明することで理解状態を確認する方略や友人と教えあいを行う方略の使用が講座により増加したことが明らかとなった。

  Peer tutoring may promote not only deeper comprehension of subjects, but also everyday use of more effective learning strategies.  The purpose of the present study was to develop a peer-tutoring program and evaluate its effects on the quality of peer-tutoring interactions and students’ learning strategy use.  A preliminary program was implemented in 1 high school during the 2010 academic year.  Although it was emphasized that the goal of peer tutoring is to deepen the understanding of both the tutor and the tutee, and instructions were provided on skills needed for peer tutoring, the student participants’ questions and explanations tended to be superficial, and the tutors rarely checked their tutees’ understanding of the tutors’ explanations.  It is possible that these problems were caused by the students’ “instruction-learning schema”, which could have portrayed the view that “tutors teach fragments of knowledge or procedural solutions through one-way instruction”.  On the basis of that hypothesis, a new program was developed that aimed to change students’ schema into “tutors teach the relations between knowledge components interactively with their tutees”.  During the 2012 academic year, 8 classes of public high school students (<I>n</I>=320) participated in the new program, which consisted of 6 one-hour sessions of lectures and peer tutoring.  Analysis of the students’ interactions revealed that the students asked and explained the relationships between knowledge components, and their comprehension test scores improved.  In addition, the students’ daily use of effective learning strategies, such as an explanation strategy, increased after they experienced the program.

Journal

  • The Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology

    The Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology 64(1), 88-104, 2016

    The Japanese Association of Educational Psychology

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130005144096
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00345837
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0021-5015
  • NDL Article ID
    027241659
  • NDL Call No.
    Z7-182
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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