鉄道従業員向けアナウンス研修の転移促進手法に関する実験的検討 [in Japanese] Feedback and Goal Setting : Promoting the Transfer of Training in Railroad Employees [in Japanese]
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本研究は, 鉄道輸送障害時における鉄道従業員のアナウンス業務にみられる慣習的行動を目標行動へと主体的に変容させるための職場研修（DVD教材の視聴）を取り上げ, 研修の効果の持続性を高めるフォローアップのあり方を不等価4群事前事後テストデザインの準実験により検証した。首都圏の鉄道会社1社の543名に対し, 4つのフォローアップ条件（GS : 教材視聴直後に目標設定を要請, FB : 教材の視聴前後の同僚の意識や行動の変化を視聴から3か月後に提示, 併用 : GSとFBの併用, 統制 : フォローアップなし）のいずれか1条件を職場単位で実施し, 目標行動に対する態度, 主観的規範, 行動意図の3つの心的変数と目標行動の実践状況を質問紙調査により複数回, 測定した。研修前と研修から6か月後を比較した結果, (1) 心的変数の変化量はいずれも統制群に比べGS, FBの各群で有意に大きくなり, (2) 目標行動の実践率は, 研修前に目標行動がとれているか否かにかかわらずFBによる促進効果が他の条件に比べ高い可能性が示された。最後に, 心的レベルと行動レベルでの有効性が示唆された本研究で実施したFBの効果を更に高めるための教育的工夫について提案した。
Follow-up methods for improving and maintaining effects of off-the-job training for railroad workers were investigated in the present study. A training program was designed to produce an active transformation of attitudes about making announcements regarding problems in the transport system, using goal-directed behavior instead of conventional behavior. A quasi-experimental, non-equivalent, pre-post test design with 4 groups was used. The participants (<I>N</I>=543) were employees of a railroad company in a metropolitan area. During training, a DVD was used to show them the teaching material. Then, the participants were presented with 1 of the following 4 conditions: (a) goal setting (GS): the participants were required to set a goal just after watching the DVD, (b) feedback (FB): 3 months after they watched the DVD, the participants were shown data on changes in the consciousness and behavior of colleagues between the pre- and post-DVD presentations, c a combination of goal setting and feedback, and (d) a control condition with no follow-up. Using a questionnaire that was administered multiple times, the following psychological variables were assessed: attitudes toward goal-directed behavior, subjective norms, and behavioral intentions, as well as the execution of goal-directed behavior. The analysis compared the data from pre-training and 6 months post-training. The results indicated that (a) scores on the psychological variables increased significantly in both the goal setting and feedback groups, compared to the control group, (b) the rate of executing goal behavior increased more in the feedback group than in the other conditions, regardless of whether or not the goal behavior had been decided before the training. The results of the present study suggest that feedback is more effective for promoting learning in railroad employees at psychological and behavioral levels. Therefore, the discussion recommends that educational methods for improving the effects of feedback should be promoted.
- The Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology
The Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology 64(1), 131-143, 2016
The Japanese Association of Educational Psychology