彗星の有機分子とその物質進化への役割  [in Japanese] Cometary organic molecules and their role in molecular evolution  [in Japanese]

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Author(s)

    • 菅原 春菜 Sugahara Haruna
    • 国立研究開発法人海洋研究開発機構生物地球化学研究分野 Department of Biogeochemistry, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC)

Abstract

Comets are most pristine materials in the solar system, which were formed by accumulation of icy dusts from the solar nebula or molecular clouds. Comets mainly consist of water ice, silicates, and organic refractory materials, and also contain abundant organic molecules. The astronomical observation revealed that more than 27 different organic molecules exist in comets. It also revealed the isotopic compositions of some organic molecules. In addition, <i>in situ</i> analyses of comets by cometary explorers and the analyses of returned cometary samples have provided further information about cometary organic molecules. These findings showed that comets contain important biomolecules and their precursors such as amino acid, amine, and hydrogen cyanide. On the other hand, the new knowledge raised new questions about the distinct isotopic compositions of comets. In this review, I summarize the latest knowledge about cometary organic molecules from astronomical observation and two recent successful space missions: Stardust mission and Rosetta mission. Then, I discuss the role of comets in molecular evolution of organic molecules that lead to the origins of life on the early Earth, with special emphasis on the effect of impact shock on organic molecules at comet impacts.

Journal

  • Chikyukagaku

    Chikyukagaku 50(2), 77-96, 2016

    The Geochemical Society of Japan

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130005158188
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00141280
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0386-4073
  • NDL Article ID
    027499339
  • NDL Call No.
    Z15-645
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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