都市規模による歩数の違い:国民健康・栄養調査2006-2010年のデータを用いた横断研究  [in Japanese] A cross-sectional study of the association between city scale and daily steps in Japan: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey Japan (NHNS-J) 2006-2010  [in Japanese]

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Author(s)

    • 井原 正裕 IHARA Masahiro
    • 東京医科大学公衆衛生学分野|厚生労働省 Tokyo Medical University Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health|Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare
    • 井上 茂 INOUE Shigeru
    • 東京医科大学公衆衛生学分野 Tokyo Medical University Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
    • 林 俊夫 HAYASHI Toshio
    • 東京医科大学公衆衛生学分野 Tokyo Medical University Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
    • 佐藤 弘樹 SATO Hiroki
    • 東京医科大学公衆衛生学分野 Tokyo Medical University Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
    • 下光 輝一 SHIMOMITSU Teruichi
    • 東京医科大学公衆衛生学分野|(公財)健康・体力づくり事業財団 Tokyo Medical University Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health|Japan Health Promotion & Fitness Foundation

Abstract

<p><b>目的</b> 近年の身体活動支援環境に関する研究成果より,地方よりも都市部の住民の身体活動レベルが高いと予想されるが,これを実証するデータは乏しい。そこで,国民健康・栄養調査のデータを用い,都市規模による 1 日の歩数の違いを比較検討した。</p><p><b>方法</b> 2006-2010年の国民健康・栄養調査における歩数計を用いた 1 日歩数調査に協力した20歳以上の男性15,763人,女性18,479人を対象とした。5 年分のデータを統合し,男女別に,歩数を都市規模間で(以下,市郡番号 1;12大都市・23特別区,2;人口15万人以上の市,3;人口 5 万人以上15万人未満の市,4;人口 5 万人未満の市,5;町・村)年齢調整の上,共分散分析および多重比較検定を行い,さらに傾向性検定を行った。年齢区分あるいは仕事の有無による層別解析も行った。統計法に基づき本データを入手し,研究実施に当たり,東京医科大学の医学倫理委員会の承認を得た。</p><p><b>結果</b> 年齢調整した 1 日当たりの歩数は,男性は市郡番号 1 では7,494±4,429歩(平均±標準偏差),市郡番号 2 では7,407±4,428歩,市郡番号 3 では7,206±4,428歩,市郡番号 4 では6,911±4,428歩,市郡番号 5 では6,715±4,429歩で,都市規模により有意に異なった(<i>P</i><0.001)。女性は,都市規模が大きい順に,6,767±3,648歩,6,386±3,647歩,6,062±3,646歩,6,069±3,649歩,6,070±3,649歩で,男性と同様に都市規模により有意に異なった(<i>P</i><0.001)。傾向性検定の結果,男女とも都市規模が大きいほど平均歩数が多かった(<i>P</i> for trend <0.001)。層別解析の結果,男女ともに年齢区分,仕事の有無によらず平均歩数は都市規模により有意に異なった。多重比較検定では,仕事のない男性,65歳以上の男性および女性では都市規模が小さい市群番号 3, 4, 5 の居住者間で平均歩数に差は認められず,仕事のある男性における,都市規模が小さくなるに従って歩数が減少するパターンとは異なっていた。</p><p><b>結論</b> 男女ともに,年齢調整後も都市規模により歩数は異なり,人口が多い都市の住民ほど人口が少ない都市の住民より歩数が多かった。また,都市人口の規模と歩数の関係は性別,年齢層や仕事の有無といった対象者の特性により異なった。</p>

<p><b>Objective</b> There is little evidence showing that inhabitants of urban areas engage in more physical activity than do rural ones, although accumulating evidence concerning the best neighborhood environments conducive to physical activity supports the idea. This study sought to fill the research gap by examining the association between city scale and daily steps using data from Japan's National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS).</p><p><b>Methods</b> We analyzed data from 15,763 men and 18,479 women aged 20 years and older who participated in a one-day pedometer measurement during any part of the NHNS between 2006 and 2010. The data obtained for these years were combined into a single data set. City scale was categorized into 5 groups based on population: 1) 12 large cities and 23 wards, 2) population greater than 150,000, 3) population 50,000-150,000, 4) population less than 50,000, and 5) towns and villages. Differences in daily steps among city scale groups were analyzed using an ANCOVA, adjusting for age by gender. The Bonferroni method was employed for multiple comparisons, and linear regression was used to test for linear trends. Subgroup analyses were performed by age (20-39, 40-64, older than 64), and job status. The study was approved by the Tokyo Medical University ethics committee, and use of these data complied with the Statistics Act of Japan.</p><p><b>Results</b> The steps per day for men after adjusting for age were Group 1 : 7,494±4,429 (mean±SD), Group 2 : 7,407±4,428, Group 3 : 7,206±4,428, Group 4 : 6,911±4,428, and Group 5 : 6,715±4,429. Women's daily steps according to city scale group were 6,767±3,648, 6,386±3,647, 6,062±3,646, 6,069±3,649, and 6,070±3,649 for Groups 1 through 5, respectively. There were overall statistically significant differences (ANCOVA, <i>P</i><0.001) between both genders. The larger the city scale, the more mean daily steps that were taken by both men and women (<i>P</i> values for both trends <0.001). Subgroup analyses revealed significant differences in the mean daily steps by city scale, regardless of age or job status for both genders. There were no significant differences among Groups 3, 4, or 5 among unemployed men, men older than 64, or overall women, which differed from the results for men with jobs, who took fewer steps in smaller cities.</p><p><b>Conclusions</b> Our study showed that men and women living in larger cities took more steps compared to those living in smaller cities. Subgroup analyses further revealed that the associations between city scale and physical activity differed according to gender, age, and job status.</p>

Journal

  • Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi(JAPANESE JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH)

    Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi(JAPANESE JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH) 63(9), 549-559, 2016

    Japanese Society of Public Health

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130005277213
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00189323
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0546-1766
  • NDL Article ID
    027652161
  • NDL Call No.
    Z19-216
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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