大正・昭和初期の口話式聾教育を受けた聾児の音声の検討  [in Japanese] Study of the voices of deaf children who received special education for the deaf by an oral method in the early Showa and Taisho era  [in Japanese]

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<p>要旨: 大阪府立生野聴覚支援学校に保存された, 昭和初期における聾児の音声収録音盤『大阪聾口話学校創立壹ヶ年口話成績: 1927年製作』を再生し, 聾児9名の発話のホルマント周波数 (F<sub>0</sub>, F<sub>1</sub>, F<sub>2</sub>) 解析及び教師他14名による聴覚印象音声評価を行った。 対象児は, 聴覚活用以前の大正期口話法による指導を受けた児童で, 音声記録として最古の史料といえる。 また, 大阪医科大学 (現大阪大学医学部) 耳鼻咽喉科教授加藤亨により, オージオメータ 2A を我国で最初期に使用して,「残聴調査表」による聴力に関する情報に基づいた点に史料的価値を有する。 その結果, 対象児は平均聴力レベル 92.5~130dB スケールアウトの両側重高度聴覚障害を示し, 1年間の口話指導により会話文脈による応答場面での音声は理解が可能になり, 5母音のホルマント周波数 (F<sub>1</sub>, F<sub>2</sub>) の分化は乏しいものの, 一定の会話能力を有する段階に至ったことが示され, 昭和初期には, 聴覚評価に基づいた話法の原型が形成されていたことが明らかになった。</p>

<p> A disk recording of voices of deaf children in the early Showa period under the title of "the results of the oral method in commemoration of the one-year anniversary of Osaka Deaf Oral School (created in 1927)", was played back to analyze the formant frequencies of the speech of 9 deaf children and have 14 specialists perform auditory-perceptual voice evaluation. These 9 children had been educated by the oral method in the Taisho period, before the use of the auditory acuity method with hearing-aids. This record may be the oldest historical data of voices of the deaf, and may also have other historical value, in that Toru Kato has left data obtained from a residual hearing table carried out using audiometer 2A for the first time in Japan. The subjects had severe bilateral hearing impairments, which prevented them from acquiring adequate conversational skills. They were voices recorded after one-year training, but were still inferior in terms of differentiation of the formant frequencies (F<sub>1</sub>, F<sub>2</sub>) of the 5 vowel sounds. The above results revealed that a prototype efficacy of the oral method was developed in the early Showa and the Taisho period.</p>

Journal

  • AUDIOLOGY JAPAN

    AUDIOLOGY JAPAN 59(3), 187-197, 2016

    Japan Audiological Society

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