がん免疫療法の最前線と展望  [in Japanese] Recent advances and future challenges in cancer immunotherapy  [in Japanese]

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Author(s)

    • 奥山 奈美子 OKUYAMA Namiko
    • 山口大学大学院 医学研究科・免疫学|日本医科大学 血液内科 Department of Immunology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine|Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Nippon Medical School
    • 玉田 耕治 TAMADA Koji
    • 山口大学大学院 医学研究科・免疫学 Department of Immunology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine

Abstract

<p>近年,がん免疫療法の進展は目覚ましく,がん治療におけるパラダイムシフトへとつながった。特に,キメラ抗原受容体発現T(chimeric antigen receptor-T, CAR-T)細胞療法や免疫チェックポイント阻害薬は,従来のがん免疫療法では到達し得なかった臨床効果と予後の改善を達成し,現在,種々のがんを対象に多くの臨床試験が実施されている。その一方で,これらの免疫治療に奏効しないがん種や患者,奏効後の再発例も存在し,さらに治療効果を向上させるための研究開発が進んでいる。また,がん免疫療法の安全性,利便性,そして経済性の改善と向上も今後の課題である。本稿では,がん新生抗原の同定およびそれを標的とした個別化がん免疫療法,高い機能性と生存性を備えたCAR-T細胞の作製,非自己細胞や細胞株を用いて製剤化するoff-the-shelf製剤,さらに複合的免疫療法を中心に今後の展望を論述する。</p>

<p>Remarkable advances have been made in cancer immunotherapy. Recent treatment strategies, especially chimeric antigen receptor-T (CAR-T) cell therapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors, reportedly achieve higher objective responses and better survival rates than previous immunotherapies for patients with treatment-resistant malignancies, creating a paradigm shift in cancer treatment. Several clinical trials of cancer immunotherapy for patients with various malignancies are ongoing. However, those with certain malignancies, such as low-immunogenic cancers, cannot be successfully treated with T-cell immunotherapy, and subsets of immunotherapy-treated patients relapse, meaning that more effective immunotherapeutic strategies are needed for such patients. Furthermore, the safety, convenience, and cost of cancer immunotherapy need to be improved in the near future. Herein, we discuss recent advances and future challenges in cancer immunotherapy, i.e., the identification of neoantigens for the development of individualized immunotherapies, the development of new CAR-T cell therapies, including so-called armored CAR-T cells that can induce greater clinical effects and thereby achieve longer survival, the development of off-the-shelf treatment regimens using non-self cells or cell lines, and effective cancer immunotherapy combinations.</p>

Journal

  • Rinsho Ketsueki

    Rinsho Ketsueki 57(11), 2388-2395, 2016

    The Japanese Society of Hematology

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130005433509
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00252940
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0485-1439
  • NDL Article ID
    027766763
  • NDL Call No.
    Z19-295
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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