Androgen receptor and monoamine oxidase polymorphism in wild bonobos

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Abstract

Androgen receptor gene (<i>AR</i>), monoamine oxidase A gene (<i>MAOA</i>) and monoamine oxidase B gene (<i>MAOB</i>) have been found to have associations with behavioral traits, such as aggressiveness, and disorders in humans. However, the extent to which similar genetic effects might influence the behavior of wild apes is unclear. We examined the loci <i>AR</i> glutamine repeat (<i>ARQ</i>), <i>AR</i> glycine repeat (<i>ARG</i>), <i>MAOA</i> intron 2 dinucleotide repeat (<i>MAin2</i>) and <i>MAOB</i> intron 2 dinucleotide repeat (<i>MBin2</i>) in 32 wild bonobos, <i>Pan paniscus</i>, and compared them with those of chimpanzees, <i>Pan troglodytes</i>, and humans. We found that bonobos were polymorphic on the four loci examined. Both loci <i>MAin2</i> and <i>MBin2</i> in bonobos showed a higher diversity than in chimpanzees. Because monoamine oxidase influences aggressiveness, the differences between the polymorphisms of <i>MAin2</i> and <i>MBin2</i> in bonobos and chimpanzees may be associated with the differences in aggression between the two species. In order to understand the evolution of these loci and <i>AR</i>, <i>MAOA</i> and <i>MAOB</i> in humans and nonhuman primates, it would be useful to conduct future studies focusing on the potential association between aggressiveness, and other personality traits, and polymorphisms documented in bonobos.

Journal

  • Primate Research Supplement

    Primate Research Supplement 31(0), 105-105, 2015

    Primate Society of Japan

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