Non-Formal Environmental Education in Japan

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<p>This paper summaries non-formal environmental education in Japan from a historical standpoint. In pre-war Japan, although development based on the policy of "rich country and strong army" brought about environmental degradation in all parts of the country, this did not lead to the birth of environmental education. The nature conservation and anti-<i>Kogai</i> movements that emerged in the post-war era prompted the "environmentalization" of society and education, marking the birth of environmental education in Japan. This education expanded to include nature-oriented education starting in the 1980s and became institutionalized starting in the 1990s. In today's context characterized by neo-liberal restructuring of the entire educational system in which environmental education is becoming increasingly marginalized, the organization of locally based critical and creative learning is urgently needed.</p>


  • Japanese Journal of Environmental Education

    Japanese Journal of Environmental Education 26(4), 4_39-44, 2017

    The Japanese Society for Environmental Education


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