マントラを商品化する―チベット難民社会を取りまくワールド・ミュージック化の試み―  [in Japanese] Commodifying the Mantra: The Motivations and Trials of Making World Music in Tibetan Refugee Society  [in Japanese]

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Author(s)

    • 山本 達也
    • 京都大学大学院アジア・アフリカ地域研究研究科/人間文化研究機構

Abstract

本稿は、ネパールの首都カトマンドゥにある世界遺産の仏教聖地、ボーダナートで土産物として販売される、チベット難民が歌うマントラCDの商品化過程を対象とするものである。現在、欧米やアジアからやってくる観光客に癒しやリラックスを与えると言われるマントラCDがボーダナートで制作されている。70年代以降、欧米を中心に消費されているマントラCDの土産物としての商品化は、観光地に暮らす人々にとって儲けのチャンスである。本稿では、マントラCDの商品化という、様々な参加者が莫大な経済的益を得、それを通じて彼らが世界市場への展開を試みる観光地のビジネスを「下からのワールド・ミュージック化」と捉える。その過程に様々な思惑をもって参与する複数のアクターの実践や意味づけに着目することで、宗教ツーリズムの進展の中で新たに見出された宗教実践を提示するとともに、チベット難民が暮らす現在の複雑な社会状況を明示することを目的とする。

This paper explores the process of the commodification of mantra CDs sung by Tibetan refugees and sold at the world heritage site and Buddhist sacred place of Bodhanath in Kathmandu, Nepal. In Bodhanath, mantra CDs are produced and sold to tourists from western and Asian countries as one way to release stress and promote relaxation. Since the 1970s, (mainly) people living in western countries have been recording Tibetan Buddhist rituals and commodifying them. Furthermore, some singers from Taiwan had a huge hit when they borrowed some famous phrases from Tibetan mantras and produced a CD called "Tibetan Incantations." Mantra singers such as Ani Choying Drolma have been invited by western musicians to record and debut as professional singers. These mantra CDs have been sold worldwide; a few merchants realized that selling these CDs should be profitable and so they sell them to tourists from western and Asian countries in Bodhanath. People living in Bodhanath have also started selling locally-produced CDs sung by Tibetan pop singers as souvenirs and they regard the production and selling of the mantra CDs as a huge business opportunity. Commodification of the mantra CDs provides huge profits for producers and all other participants, and they attempt to expand the market by selling these locally-produced mantra CDs worldwide. This paper looks at the complexities when entering the world music market via the backdoor. This paper focuses on artistic and business practices, and adds meaning to the production of the mantra CDs by multiple actors such as Nepali CD companies, Nepali producers, and Tibetan pop singers, with their different aims in broadening their activities into the world market and becoming more profitable. Besides that, this paper also attempts to show the religious practices newly found by local mantra singers within the ongoing development of religious tourism and the recently complicated condition of the society in which Tibetan refugees have been living.

Journal

  • Religion and Society

    Religion and Society 20(0), 33-46, 2014

    The Japanese Association for the Study of Religion and Society

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