気象災害の地域差を生む社会的要因:-モンゴルにおける2009/2010年ゾド災害の場合-  [in Japanese] Social Factors Accounting for Local Differences in the Damage Caused by a Meteorological Disaster:- A Case Study of the 2009-2010 <i>Dzud</i> in Mongolia -  [in Japanese]

Access this Article

Search this Article

Author(s)

    • 杜 春玲 DU Chunling
    • 内蒙古農業大学経済管理学院|名古屋大学大学院環境学研究科 School of Economics and Management,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University|Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University

Abstract

<p>モンゴル国では,乾燥かつ寒冷という厳しい気候ゆえに,基幹産業である遊牧がゾド災害(寒雪害)に繰り返し脅かされてきたが,家畜への被害は異常気象の条件が類似した近隣地域でも大きく異なる.本研究では,2009/2010年ゾドによる家畜被害に大きな違いが認められたOvorkhangi県のTaragt郡(家畜死亡率約71%)とNariinteel郡(家畜死亡率約15%)を対象に,その地域差をもたらした社会的要因を牧畜気象データ・社会経済統計データの解析と牧民へのインタビュー調査により解明することを目的とした.夏の降水量・冬の気温と積雪量からみると,Nariinteel郡のほうが厳しい気象条件であった.しかしながら,そこで家畜死が大きく抑えられた理由として,夏から冬へと季節順に以下の5点があげられた.(1)毎年行う季節移動の回数が多く,距離が長いこと,(2)夏に計測した過放牧率が比較的小さかったこと,(3)ゾドに備えて家畜販売や飼料の備蓄を積極的に実施したこと,(4)冬用の草地を確保するため冬営地への移動時期を遅らせたこと,(5)冬営地やゾドに対する避難場所として山地の比較的温暖な風下中腹斜面を利用したこと.まとめると,地域の自然状況・市場経済状況に基づいた能動的家畜管理はゾド被害を低減する有効な手段になりえると考えられた.</p>

<p>The livelihoods of Mongolia's inhabitants have long been jeopardized by repeated natural hazards associated with a harsh environment and a cold and arid climate. <i>Dzud</i> is a Mongolian word denoting harsh winter conditions. The impacts of such hazards often vary considerably, even across adjoining areas. Given this situation, this study aimed to identify the social factors accounting for local differences between Taragt and Nariinteel Counties of Ovorkhangai Province during the 2009-2010 <i>dzud</i> using zoo-meteorological data and socioeconomic data obtained from interviewed herders. The results revealed much lower livestock mortalities in Nariinteel, despite its more severe climatic conditions. The social factors associated with reduced mortalities corresponded to the following actions taken by the herders in relation to the seasonal sequence of movements from summer to winter. These included: (1) conducting frequent and regular long-distance seasonal movements; (2) using pasturelands with a lower overgrazing rate measured in the summer; (3) promoting livestock sales and preparation of winter forage stock; (4) delaying movement to the winter camping site to ensure sufficient winter pasture; and (5) selecting warmer, middle, and lee sides of mountains for winter camp and shelter sites. These findings suggest that proactive herding management entailing careful consideration of local natural and marketing conditions will provide an efficient countermeasure for reducing <i>dzud</i>-induced damage.</p>

Journal

  • Journal of Arid Land Studies

    Journal of Arid Land Studies 27(1), 1-8, 2017

    The Japanese Association for Arid Land Studies

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130005882071
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA11338296
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0917-6985
  • NDL Article ID
    028460896
  • NDL Call No.
    Z15-770
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
Page Top