取引ネットワークに依拠した広域的企業移転の解明 Relocation of Firms Based on Networks of Dealings

Access this Article

Search this Article

Abstract

    国全体の人口減少が進む中で大都市への人口集中は継続しており,相対的に小規模な都市の衰退はいよいよ深刻である.種々の産業振興策が図られてきたが,全国的な人口配置をリバランスするほどの成果は挙がっていない.Krugman(1991) に端を発する空間経済学の考え方に基づけば,距離費用が低下する環境にあっては大都市への集中が進むのはいわば必然である.<BR>    本稿ではこれを踏まえ,取引における距離抵抗と収穫逓増を基本原理とした産業の立地変化の実証を行う.取引における均衡状態と,立地における非均衡を前提としたモデルを構築することで,ある時点の潜在的立地条件が徐々に反映されていく緩慢な立地変化を表現し,この条件下では相対的小都市への集中も発生しうることを明らかにする.<BR>    実証には (株) 帝国データバンクが保有する140万余企業のデータを用い,2011年から2014年の3年間の日本全国の広域的な移転行動の説明を行った.88の産業分類,231の都市圏を用いた詳細な立地評価をし,小都市への立地可能性を評価した.<BR>    その結果,評価した立地条件に基づく均衡状態へと向かう企業立地の緩慢な変化が生じており,相対的に小さな都市においても産業の立地可能性が存在することが明らかになった.また,産業の種類によってリージョン単位で立地合理性が生ずるもの,国土縁辺部でも局地的な立地合理性が成立しうるものがあることが分かり,地域の産業振興施策に一定の示唆を与える結果となった.

    Even while the Japanese population is decreasing, immigration to larger cities has not stopped. Therefore, smaller cities are confronting an even heavier decline. Up until today, efforts have been made to promote the industries of smaller cities, but the outcomes are inadequate to satisfy the need to relocate population. Based on spatial economics that originated with Krugman (1991), it is natural that people will concentrated in larger cities with decreasing transportation costs.<BR>    Based on the above, this paper demonstrates changes in the location of firms by introducing distance resistances and increasing returns as fundamental principles. The model constructed here supposes a balance of trade networks and an imbalance from the location of firms and expresses slow change in firm location. This means that the potential condition of the easing of location at any time slowly influences the real location. As a result, this shows clearly that a concentration of some kinds of industries to smaller cities is possible.<BR>    This firm location change comes from data held by TEIKOKU DATABANK, LTD., examining about 140 thousand firms. Potential conditions for location were rated by adopting 80 categories of industries and 231 metropolitan areas. Therefore, it was possible to consider the potential to locate to smaller cities.<BR>    As a result, a slow change in firm location is observed and the possibility of firms moving to smaller cities is brought to light. Additionally, it is shown that there are a variety of industries based on distribution of location potential. Firms of some industries make decisions to locate to the central parts of the nation, while others make the decision to move to less central or marginal areas. This fact suggest an idea of what industries are suitable to promote to local municipalities.

Journal

  • Annals of the Association of Economic Geographers

    Annals of the Association of Economic Geographers 62(1), 19-38, 2016

    The Japan Association of Economic Geography

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130006069056
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00071152
  • Text Lang
    ENG
  • ISSN
    0004-5683
  • NDL Article ID
    027457734
  • NDL Call No.
    Z3-228
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
Page Top