工業化と非正規化:―デリー首都圏における自動車産業の請負労働市場を対象に― Industrialization and Informalization::the Contractual Labor Market of the Automobile Industry in the National Capital Region of Delhi

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Abstract

<p>    インドにおける工業化の進展は,同時に労働市場の非正規化を招いている.それは,近代工業の中では自動車において,また地域的には「オート・コリドー」の中核をなすハリヤーナー州において顕著に認められる.本稿は,同州最大の工業団地・IMTマネサール近傍のアパート居住者調査に基づいて,自動車産業の請負労働市場の内実を明らかにしたものである.請負労働を取り巻く制度的背景,請負ワーカーの学歴や出身地などの属性,参入経路や請負業者が果たす役割,そして経済生活などについて新たな知見を得るとともに,このような雇用の非正規化(インフォーマル化) は,オート・コリドーから離れたUP州やビハール州に「請負ワーカーベルト」と呼ぶべき,労働力の移出地域を顕在化させたことを見いだした.請負ワーカーベルトは,工業化により形成された労働力需給システムを介して,オート・コリドーへの低賃金労働力供給地として包摂されると同時に,そこに従属する関係がつくり出されている.この関係は,現代インドにおける中心-周辺構造の形成とみることもでき,同国の経済地域構造を捉える上で重要な論点となるであろう.</p>

<p>    The automobile industry has undoubtedly contributed to the growth of the Indian economy. However, this might not apply to employment because the industry is well known for the use of non-regular workers. In 2002, contract workers comprised only 20.7% of the total workers in the industry; however, the share has since risen to 44.6% by 2011. This ratio (71.0%) is the highest in Haryana State, India's largest automobile production hub.<BR>    This study focused on the labor market structure for contract workers in the automobile industry using field data collected by the author at a village adjacent to the Industrial Model Township (IMT) of Manesar, the largest industrial estate in Haryana. IMT Manesar is one of the main vehicle production centers in the "auto corridor" in the National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi. The results of a survey of 254 respondents reveal the following:<BR>    1) According to the age structure of the respondents, the labor market mainly consists of the younger generation, but they tend to retreat from the market over time. Their educational background is mainly secondary level, and varies from "illiterate" to "graduate." This observation implies that the automobile companies related to this labor market requires neither specific educational qualifications nor skills.<BR>    2) Most respondents originate from the "contract worker belt," which spans Uttar Pradesh to Bihar. Contrary to expectations that such an industrial labor market is formed by local people, few respondents originate from within the NCR of Delhi. Not only contractors but also industries avoid hiring "locals" as workers because they wish to avoid labor problems.<BR>    3) The monthly wage level of the respondents is determined by the state's minimum wage, which was Rs. 5,342 in 2014. Their actual monthly income at the time of study was about Rs. 6,500, because they usually engage in overtime work. However, their income is still less than half that of formal (regular) workers. The respondents spend only small amounts of their earnings on their daily needs and periodically remit their remaining salaries to their families.<BR>    4) Labor migration from the contract worker belt to the auto corridor of Haryana and remittances from the latter to the former have become noteworthy over the last decade. Certainly, the contract worker belt receives economic benefits through the involvement of the area's residents in the production system of this auto corridor. Nonetheless, we cannot ignore the fact that the workers face job instability and earn low wages. In addition, they can spend only a fraction of their salary for reproducing their labor power, which forces them to retreat from this labor market before long. However, the surplus population in the belt fills vacant positions immediately. The relationship between the two regions seems to have formed a center–periphery structure in contemporary India.</p>

Journal

  • Annals of the Association of Economic Geographers

    Annals of the Association of Economic Geographers 62(2), 71-86, 2016

    The Japan Association of Economic Geography

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130006069086
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00071152
  • Text Lang
    ENG
  • ISSN
    0004-5683
  • NDL Article ID
    027576455
  • NDL Call No.
    Z3-228
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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