<b>戦後の「精神薄弱」に関する三木安正の思想 </b>:<b>—教育の場と方法に着目して</b><b>— </b>  [in Japanese] <b>Analysis of Yasumasa Miki's views on "Mental Retardation" in the Postwar</b><b> Period</b>:<b>Focusing on the Placement and Method of Education </b>  [in Japanese]

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<p>戦後の「精神薄弱」に関する三木安正(1911−1984) の思想を明らかにすることを目的とし、精神薄弱教育の場の整備が進められた時期と精神薄弱教育の方法に関する議論が展開された時期の精神薄弱教育に関わる法制度の変遷及び三木の言説の整理を行った。分析の視点は、理念・方法、対象、配置・整備、社会との関わりの4つとした。 その結果、前者の時期では、配置・整備に関する言説が多く見られ、学級自体を集団生活について学ぶための小社会だと位置づけ、特殊学級を精神薄弱教育の真髄としていた。特殊学級が安定感を享受でき、生活の基盤となる場であると同時に、「普通学校」の中に特殊学級があることで「一般児童」の理解・啓発を高める道徳教育としての役割が期待できるとしていた。後者の時期では、理念と方法に関する言説が多く見られ、特殊教育の内容の充実、向上を求めていた。三木は、「生活目標を持った生活」ができるようになるための教育によって、児童の可能性も広がっていくとした。この時期に生活教育の理念を確立し、教育内容を明確化したと考えられるが、生活教育と教科教育の二元論ではなく、「精神薄弱者のための教育」として考えるべきだとしていた。</p>

<p>For clarifying the views of Yasumasa Miki on "mental retardation" in the Postwar Period, we discussed several key points. These include the development of education and welfare systems for children with mental retardation, and Miki's statements on this. The analyses and discussions were divided into two periods as follows: the period when the field of education for children with mental retardation was developed (from 1945 to the late 1950s), and the period when the method of education for children with mental retardation was discussed (from the early 1960s to 1984). As a result, in the former period, Miki positioned the class itself as a small society for children to learn about group living. Moreover, he considered the special class as the quintessence of education for children with mental retardation. He thought that the special class was a place where children with mental retardation could enjoy the feeling of stability and would become a basis for their livelihood. Furthermore, Miki expected the existence of a special class in an ordinal school to play the role of moral education to improve the understanding and enlightenment of "normal children." In the latter period, Miki pursued the enrichment and improvement of curriculum for children with mental retardation. Miki argued that the education could give children with mental retardation the expanded opportunities enabling them to "live with the goal of life." Miki clarified the principle of life education with learning units of life experiences and curriculum, and his views were not on the dualism of life education and subject education but the integrated education understandable to them as the "education for children with mental retardation." However, Miki had expected that further understanding of mental retardation and the development of a method and system where children with all kinds of individual differences could be educated at the same time in an ordinal class might result in "educational integration" in the future.</p>


  • Japanese Journal of Disability Sciences

    Japanese Journal of Disability Sciences 41(1), 135-148, 2017

    Association of Disability Sciences, Japan


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