Effects of the Antiepileptic Drugs Phenytoin, Gabapentin, and Levetiracetam on Bone Strength, Bone Mass, and Bone Turnover in Rats

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Author(s)

Abstract

<p>Long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is accompanied by reduced bone mass that is associated with an increased risk of bone fractures. Although phenytoin has been reported to adversely influence bone metabolism, little is known pertaining to more recent AEDs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of gabapentin or levetiracetam on bone strength, bone mass, and bone turnover in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered phenytoin (20 mg/kg), gabapentin (30 or 150 mg/kg), or levetiracetam (50 or 200 mg/kg) daily for 12 weeks. Bone histomorphometric analysis of the tibia was performed and femoral bone strength was evaluated using a three-point bending method. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur and tibia was measured using quantitative computed tomography. Administration of phenytoin significantly decreased bone strength and BMD, which was associated with enhanced bone resorption. In contrast, treatment with gabapentin (150 mg/kg) significantly decreased bone volume and increased trabecular separation, as shown by bone histomorphometric analysis. Moreover, the bone formation parameters, osteoid volume and mineralizing surface, decreased after gabapentin treatment, whereas the bone resorption parameters, osteoclast surface and number, increased. Levetiracetam treatment did not affect bone strength, bone mass, and bone turnover. Our data suggested that gabapentin induced the rarefaction of cancellous bone, which was associated with decreased bone formation and enhanced bone resorption, and may affect bone strength and BMD after chronic exposure. To prevent the risk of bone fractures, patients prescribed a long-term administration of gabapentin should be regularly monitored for changes in bone mass.</p>

Journal

  • Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin

    Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 40(11), 1934-1940, 2017

    The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130006191966
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA10885497
  • Text Lang
    ENG
  • ISSN
    0918-6158
  • NDL Article ID
    028602314
  • NDL Call No.
    Z53-V41
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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