群馬県における水害罹災者の対応:——1910年利根川大水害による移住をめぐって——  [in Japanese] Study of Hazard Migrations Caused by the Great Tone River Flood in 1910, Gunma Prefecture  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

本稿の課題は,「群馬県庁文書」の活用によって,1910年利根川大水害の罹災者の対応を,移住者送出に視点を据えて明らかにし,これまでの移民研究の空隙を埋めることにある.本稿は,群馬県多野郡の朝鮮移住と全県的に推進された北海道移住に重点を置いて考察を行った.群馬県は,商品作物生産が盛んで,かつ農業外労働市場が豊富なため,元来移住者送出数が少なかった.多野郡では,出身者の日向輝武の勧誘活動により,1900年代初めから移住者送出が本格化していたところへ大水害が発生した.しかし,同郡罹災者に東拓の朝鮮移住情報は浸透せず,彼らは新聞広告から情報を得て渡航した.一方,県主導の北海道移住では,義捐金からの補助金拠出に加え,日下部宗三郎ら地元の先駆的移住者の積極的勧誘が促進要因であった.その結果,全般に死者が少なく,耕地や家屋の被害多大な地域で移住者送出依存の高かったことが明らかとなった.

The purpose of this paper is to clarify hazard migrations caused by the great Tone River flood in Gunma prefecture in 1910 using official documents of the prefecture. The most afflicted areas were along upper streams in Gunma prefecture, which had still not undergone river development programs by the time of the great flood in 1910. Because serious damage occurred in Oura, Sawa, and Tano counties where the main stream of the Tone River connected to feeder streams and Gunma and Agatsuma counties had some bilateral feeders, 280 people died and 24 were missing in the prefecture.<br>Migrations to Hokkaido, Korea, and Manchuria were fewer traditionally than from other areas because there was a demand for agricultural labor to produce numerous commercial crops in Gunma prefecture. The number of migrants from Gunma prefecture gradually increased around 1900. There were migrations to Korea from Tano county due to significant damage caused by the great flood in 1910. Information on migrant recruitment to Korea was obtained from newspapers because Toyo Takushoku Company did not become large enough to provide publicity in Japanese.<br>Migrations to Hokkaido took place in accordance with the conservation policy of the prefectural government and at the invitation of the previous governor, Kusakabe Sozaburo, who had left Gunma prefecture. Because Hokkaido actively accepted migrations caused by the great flood, it decided to set up an association of migrants to Hokkaido to alleviate hardships in flood-affected villages.<br>Hazard migration after the Tone River flood of 1910 tended to displace people because otherwise they would only be able to eke out a living in counties where, although few people died, extensive farmland and many dwellings were submerged by the great flood.

Journal

  • Geographical review of Japan series A

    Geographical review of Japan series A 85(6), 618-632, 2012

    The Association of Japanese Geographers

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130006206386
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA11591990
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1883-4388
  • NDL Article ID
    024084420
  • NDL Call No.
    Z8-571
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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