国際交流組織ATBATの結成と変容 ATBAT(建造者アトリエ)の国際・地域交流活動の歴史的経緯に関する研究 その1  [in Japanese] FORMATION AND CHANGE OF AN INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE ORGANIZATION ATBAT:A study on the history of international and regional exchange activity of ATBAT (Atelier des Bâtisseurs), Part 1.  [in Japanese]

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Author(s)

    • 松原 康介 MATSUBARA Kosuke
    • 筑波大学システム情報系社会工学域都市計画分野<br>国際総合学類国際開発学主専攻 Faculty of Engineering, Information and Systems<br>Division of Policy and Planning Sciences, University of Tsukuba

Abstract

The ATBAT (Atelier des Bâtisseurs), probably best known as the architectural design office of Le Corbusier that realized the Unité d'habitation of Marseille, was not solely Le Corbusier's main place of activity; many architects and engineers from various origins attempted to produce their own planning theory through activities all over the world. Assuming the ATBAT is an international exchange organization, this research will clarify how its key members joined it, what they learned about the related area through cooperation both within and outside of the ATBAT, and how they finally became independent from Le Corbusier. Unknown previous experiences of the key members, who later became important architects and urban planners, are historically clarified. The result of this historical research will be meaningful for future studies examining the ATBAT's planning theory from the cultural and regional viewpoints. The overall picture of the ATBAT, which has been an object of much praise, criticism, and reassignment from members, is complicated. In this research, four key members who represent the international exchange at the ATBAT are chosen and the background of their participation and collaboration with the ATBAT is clarified. The key members are Vladimir Bodiansky, George Candilis, Gérald Hanning, and Gyoji Banshoya. The contents of their exchanges, including points of opposition among them, will be examined by analyzing primary materials, such as their letters, business records, autobiographies, planning documents, and magazine articles, to clarify the history of the ATBAT's organizational transformation. In contrast, in this research, I will not examine the content of their plans; my consideration is limited to the simple facts of the members' footprints by studying the remaining documents and records. This research aims to clarify the history of the ATBAT organization as this aspect has not been systematically treated in previous studies in which planning-theory research was the main focus. Based on the participation process of the key members and the work experience in the Unité d'habitation of Marseille, the history of the formation and transformation of the initial ATBAT was clarified. In the formation process, the key members worked for the creation of the CSTB, associated with the Syrian–Lebanese expert Michel Ecochard who could deal with historical urban spaces and modernism very well, and worked with the United Nations and the MRU. All their works can be regarded as international exchange activities in the ATBAT that were created for promoting the reconstruction of war-damaged France. The organizational change of the ATBAT can be understood in the era of industrialization wherein architects and engineers were divided according to their specializations. Furthermore, Le Corbusier was a highly successful architect of the Unité d'habitation. In other words, the friendly relation between Le Corbusier and the ATBAT members at the beginning of the formation rapidly changed, and the engineers were adopted by the architects to work at a disadvantage. Therefore, the talented ATBAT members who had contributed to the project in Marseille had to explore their own path. Hanning willingly left Le Corbusier. Candilis was ambitious enough to be an architect himself. Bodiansky began pursuing an independent career as a consultant engineer. Since then, the ATBAT underwent a further major change, but its trigger was brought about by the work experience of the Unité d'habitation of Marseille, which is still a symbol of the era.

 The ATBAT (Atelier des Bâtisseurs), probably best known as the architectural design office of Le Corbusier that realized the <i>Unité d'habitation</i> of Marseille, was not solely Le Corbusier's main place of activity; many architects and engineers from various origins attempted to produce their own planning theory through activities all over the world.<br> Assuming the ATBAT is an international exchange organization, this research will clarify how its key members joined it, what they learned about the related area through cooperation both within and outside of the ATBAT, and how they finally became independent from Le Corbusier. Unknown previous experiences of the key members, who later became important architects and urban planners, are historically clarified. The result of this historical research will be meaningful for future studies examining the ATBAT's planning theory from the cultural and regional viewpoints.<br> The overall picture of the ATBAT, which has been an object of much praise, criticism, and reassignment from members, is complicated. In this research, four key members who represent the international exchange at the ATBAT are chosen and the background of their participation and collaboration with the ATBAT is clarified. The key members are Vladimir Bodiansky, George Candilis, Gérald Hanning, and Gyoji Banshoya. The contents of their exchanges, including points of opposition among them, will be examined by analyzing primary materials, such as their letters, business records, autobiographies, planning documents, and magazine articles, to clarify the history of the ATBAT's organizational transformation. In contrast, in this research, I will not examine the content of their plans; my consideration is limited to the simple facts of the members' footprints by studying the remaining documents and records. This research aims to clarify the history of the ATBAT organization as this aspect has not been systematically treated in previous studies in which planning-theory research was the main focus.<br> Based on the participation process of the key members and the work experience in the <i>Unité d'habitation</i> of Marseille, the history of the formation and transformation of the initial ATBAT was clarified. In the formation process, the key members worked for the creation of the CSTB, associated with the Syrian–Lebanese expert Michel Ecochard who could deal with historical urban spaces and modernism very well, and worked with the United Nations and the MRU. All their works can be regarded as international exchange activities in the ATBAT that were created for promoting the reconstruction of war-damaged France.<br> The organizational change of the ATBAT can be understood in the era of industrialization wherein architects and engineers were divided according to their specializations. Furthermore, Le Corbusier was a highly successful architect of the <i>Unité d'habitation</i>. In other words, the friendly relation between Le Corbusier and the ATBAT members at the beginning of the formation rapidly changed, and the engineers were adopted by the architects to work at a disadvantage. Therefore, the talented ATBAT members who had contributed to the project in Marseille had to explore their own path. Hanning willingly left Le Corbusier. Candilis was ambitious enough to be an architect himself. Bodiansky began pursuing an independent career as a consultant engineer. Since then, the ATBAT underwent a further major change, but its trigger was brought about by the work experience of the <i>Unité d'habitation</i> of Marseille, which is still a symbol of the era.

Journal

  • Journal of Architecture and Planning (Transactions of AIJ)

    Journal of Architecture and Planning (Transactions of AIJ) (742), 3239-3249, 2017-12

    Architectural Institute of Japan

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130006294995
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN10438548
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    journal article
  • ISSN
    1340-4210
  • NDL Article ID
    028692826
  • NDL Call No.
    Z16-107
  • Data Source
    NDL  IR  J-STAGE  AIJ 
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