高齢都市居住者を支える「共助」の仕組み作りとその課題:ザンビア共和国ルサカ市における住民団体(CBO)の事例から  [in Japanese] Challenges to Promote Community-based "Mutual Cooperation" to Support the Elderly People in Urban Area of Zambia  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<p>近年,世界全体で母子保健や感染症対策が進み,世界全体で乳児死亡率が低下し,世界全体の平均寿命も1990年の65歳から2013年に71歳と延び,各国で高齢者人口が増加し,アフリカ諸国の都市部では高齢者の孤立や生活苦が表面化している。</p><p>都市における高齢者を地域社会で支援する「共助」のあり方について,ザンビア共和国ルサカ市の低所得者居住地であるチャワマ地区の高齢住民および住民団体(CBO:Community Based Organization)のリーダを対象に聞き取り調査とワークショップを2015年3月および8月に実施した。高齢者は住民との交流を望んでおり,住民リーダーらも高齢者を地域社会で支援するシステムが必要であると認識していることがわかった。CBOはマンパワー,予算,経験が十分でない等の課題がある。地域住民らの活動の連携や社会参加の場として日本の公民館をモデルにした集会所(CLC:Community Learning Center)の役割が注目された。</p><p>Post MDGsとして採択されたSDGs(Sustainable Development Goals)に高齢者者対策の項目(目標3「あらゆる年齢のすべての人に対する健康な生活の確保,福祉(well-being)の促進」)が入り,今後アフリカ諸国を含めた世界的規模で地域の「共助」を活用した高齢者対策を実施することが求められる。</p>

<p>Progress in public health have prolonged the longevity. Ageing has become the global issues in both developed and developing countries. In most of the African countries, the rural old people were cared by the young family member of the traditional extended family system. On the other hand, the old people in urban areas are facing difficulties to get support from their family. The community -based support system is needed in the urban areas. Lusaka was chosen as the target research area to explore the possibility to plan for the community based support system for the elderly. Series of workshops for the elderly residents and leaders of the CBO (Community Based Organization) were organized in March and August in 2015 at Chawama Township. In SDGs (Sustainable Development Goals), Goals3- "Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages", is related to the Global Ageing issues. For the sustainable development, the role of the community is crucial. The community based ageing program on "mutual cooperation" should be organized in Africa and other region through the active community participation.</p>

Journal

  • Journal of African Studies

    Journal of African Studies 2016(90), 85-92, 2016

    Japan Association for African Studies

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