MicroRNAs associated with the development of kidney diseases in humans and animals

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Author(s)

    • Ichii Osamu Ichii Osamu
    • Laboratory of Anatomy, Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 18-Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0818, Japan
    • Horino Taro Horino Taro
    • Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Nephrology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kohasu, Oko-cho, Nankoku, Kochi 783-8505, Japan

Abstract

<p> Mature microRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNAs with approximately 18–25 bases, and their sequences are highly conserved among animals. miRNAs act as posttranscriptional regulators by binding mRNAs, and their main function involves the degradation of their target mRNAs. Recent studies revealed altered expression of miRNAs in the kidneys during the progression of acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in humans and experimental rodent models by using high-throughput screening techniques including microarray and small RNA sequencing. Particularly, miR-21 seems to be strongly associated with renal pathogenesis both in the glomerulus and tubulointerstitium. Furthermore, abundant evidence has been gathered showing the involvement of miRNAs in renal fibrosis. Because of the complex morphofunctional organization of the mammalian kidneys, it is crucial both to determine the exact localization of the kidney cells that express the miRNAs, which has been addressed mainly using <i>in situ</i> hybridization methods, and to identify precisely which mRNAs are bound and degraded by these miRNAs, which has been studied mostly through <i>in vitro</i> analysis. To discover novel biomarker candidates, miRNA levels in urine supernatant, sediment, and exosomal fraction were comprehensively investigated in different types of kidney disease, including drug-induced AKI, ischemia-induced AKI, diabetic nephropathy, lupus nephritis, and IgA nephropathy. Recent studies also demonstrated the therapeutic effect of miRNA and/or anti-miRNA administrations. The intent of this review is to illustrate the state-of-the-art research in the field of miRNAs associated with renal pathogenesis, especially focusing on AKI and CKD in humans and animal models.</p>

Journal

  • Journal of Toxicologic Pathology

    Journal of Toxicologic Pathology 31(1), 23-34, 2018

    JAPANESE SOCIETY OF TOXICOLOGIC PATHOLOGY

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130006318235
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN10232280
  • Text Lang
    ENG
  • ISSN
    0914-9198
  • NDL Article ID
    028798644
  • NDL Call No.
    Z19-2431
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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