内務省における自然の風景に関する制度化の経過  [in Japanese] The Process of Institutionalization of the Natural Landscape in the Department of Home Affairs  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<p>The institutionalization through law of natural landscapes for use and conservation in Japan began with the enactment of two laws ― the National Monuments Preservation Law of 1919, which defined <i>meisho</i> (places of scenic beauty), and the National Parks Law of 1931, which defined national parks.</p><p>This study details the administrative affairs of parks and <i>meisho</i> through the Meiji era and discusses the influences of those affairs on the institutionalization of the use and conservation of natural landscapes. The research method used in this study is based on the analysis of contemporaneous material, including administrative papers, magazine reports, and press reports.</p><p>The Geography Bureau and the Geography Division of the Department of Home Affairs were in charge of the administrative affairs concerning parks and <i>meisho</i>. These affairs were based on the perspective of state-owned land management.</p><p>During the period from 1900 to 1910, the Geography Division with the Shrine and Temple Bureau investigated the preservation of historic sites and <i>meisho</i>, leading to the National Monuments Preservation Law. Around the same time, the jurisdiction over parks was moved to the Sanitary Bureau. After the jurisdiction was given to them, there was little work concerning parks.</p><p>From 1910 on, requests were submitted to the Diet asking for the establishment of large parks in the Mt. Fuji or the Nikko areas. However, in response to these requests, the Department of Home Affairs did not consider the establishment of parks, but instead considered the preservation of these areas as <i>meisho</i>. After the Sanitary Bureau presented intensive research on parks in 1920, the Department of Home Affairs changed its approach and considered both perspectives on the use of parks for recreation as well as for the preservation of <i>meisho</i>.</p><p>Although members of the National Monument Committee conducted the research regarding the preservation of <i>meisho</i>, the investigators' views of the natural landscapes were different. Therefore, their work did not result in the institutionalization of large natural landscapes. In contrast, the research of the Sanitary Bureau led to the enactment of the National Parks Law of 1931.</p><p>The origin of the institutionalization of natural landscapes for use and conservation in the Taisho era was in the administrative affairs concerning parks and <i>meisho</i> beginning with government decisions in the early Meiji era. The transfer of jurisdiction of parks around 1897 had an impact on the enactment of the National Parks Law.</p>

Journal

  • Japanese Journal of Human Geography

    Japanese Journal of Human Geography 67(5), 412-429, 2015

    The Human Geographical Society of Japan

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130006322220
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00123110
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0018-7216
  • NDL Article ID
    027138019
  • NDL Call No.
    Z8-440
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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