「沖縄」を問題化する力学:反公害住民運動のつながりと金武湾闘争  [in Japanese] Dynamics of Problematizing "Okinawa"::The Network of Resident's Anti-Environmental Pollution Movements and the Kin Bay Struggle  [in Japanese]

Access this Article

Author(s)

Abstract

<p>本稿では, 「沖縄問題」がどのような力学のもと構成され, 変化するのか, そして, 人びとによって経験されてきたのかという問いをたてる. 具体的には, 沖縄の日本復帰直前の1970年代前半から復帰後の70年代後半の時期に焦点をあて, 宇井純 (1932-2006) が中心となり取り組まれた自主講座運動が, 日本本土と沖縄, そしてアジアの反公害住民運動をつなげ, 「沖縄問題」を提起した意味を検討する.</p><p>復帰後の沖縄社会は, 「沖縄問題」をめぐる関心の減少, 沖縄振興開発計画に伴う開発の促進と観光地化, そして基地問題の非争点化という特徴をもつ. だが, 復帰後, 「沖縄問題」への関心を持続させ, 国家と資本, さらには両者の開発主義を受容する革新県政を批判したのが反公害住民運動であった. その特徴は, (1)沖縄への日本資本の進出を公害問題の実態に基づき批判したこと, (2)「沖縄問題」を日本本土との加害/被害や支配/被支配といった枠組みだけではなく, 遍在する公害問題をつなぐ形で再構成した点にある. 本稿は, 金武湾闘争を通じて反公害住民運動が, 国家と資本, そして革新県政による沖縄の問題化に対し, 別の政治の回路を開いたことを明らかにする.</p>

<p>This paper focuses on the Jishukouza (Autonomous Lectures) movement initiated by Jun Ui (1932-2006), a tremendous Japanese chemist and activist; it analyzes the meanings and dynamic of their activities on Okinawa creating linkages among the residents' anti-environmental pollution movements in Japan, Okinawa, and other Asian countries. The questions in this paper are how the "Okinawa Problem" (Okinawa-<i>mondai</i>) is constructed among activist networks and how the people encountered Okinawa in the 1970s after its reversion to Japan.</p><p>Okinawan society after the reversion had specific characteristics, such as accelerating development through the Plan for Promotion and Development of Okinawa by the Japanese government, evading military-base issues in national politics, and decreasing public interest in Okinawa. However, anti-environmental pollution movements on the mainland of Japan had continued their activities on Okinawa, especially the Kin Bay Struggle, and made important criticisms of development programs led by the Japanese government and capitalism. Development programs came in for severe criticism based on the historical experiences of pollution (<i>kougai</i>) on the Japanese mainland between the 1950s and 1960s. Activists of Jishukouza tried to understand the "Okinawa Problem" in terms of socio-economic pain and oppression involving development in both Japan and Okinawa instead of placing them in a dichotomous framework. This paper proves that the network of social movements in 1970s created a new way of understanding about Okinawa.</p>

Journal

  • Japanese Sociological Review

    Japanese Sociological Review 67(4), 415-431, 2016

    The Japan Sociological Society

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130006594303
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0021-5414
  • Data Source
    J-STAGE 
Page Top