Multiple Roles of Tenascins in Homeostasis and Pathophysiology of Aorta

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Author(s)

    • Imanaka-Yoshida Kyoko
    • Department of Pathology and Matrix Biology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine|Mie University Research Center for Matrix Biology
    • Matsumoto Ken-ichi
    • Department of Biosignaling and Radioisotope Experiment, Interdisciplinary Center for Science Research, Organization for Research and Academic Information

Abstract

<p>Tenascins are a family of large extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins. Four family members (tenascin-C, -R, -X, and -W) have been identified to date. Each member consists of the same types of structural domains and exhibits time- and tissue-specific expression patterns, suggesting their specific roles in embryonic development and tissue remodeling. Among them, the significant involvement of tenascin-C (TNC) and tenascin-X (TNX) in the progression of vascular diseases has been examined in detail. TNC is strongly up-regulated under pathological conditions, induced by a number of inflammatory mediators and mechanical stress. TNC has diverse functions, particularly in the regulation of inflammatory responses. Recent studies suggest that TNC is involved in the pathophysiology of aneurysmal and dissecting lesions, in part by protecting the vascular wall from destructive mechanical stress. TNX is strongly expressed in vascular walls, and its distribution is often reciprocal to that of TNC. TNX is involved in the stability and maintenance of the collagen network and elastin fibers. A deficiency in TNX results in a form of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS). Although their exact roles in vascular diseases have not yet been elucidated, TNC and TNX are now being recognized as promising biomarkers for diagnosis and risk stratification of vascular diseases.</p>

Journal

  • Annals of Vascular Diseases

    Annals of Vascular Diseases, 2018

    The Editorial Committee of Annals of Vascular Diseases

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