現代的ガバナンスの形成と社会情報学的課題  [in Japanese] The formation of the modern governance and problems of the socio-informatics  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<p>1980 年代以降,行政と企業のいずれの領域においてもガバナンス改革が進んだ.行政領域では,80 年代に「新公共管理」が導入され,90 年代に「新公共ガバナンス」が成立した.新公共管理から新公共ガバナンスへの移行は,古い形態が新しい形態に単純に置き換わる変化ではなかった.そこには,新公共管理からの「離反」「継承」「発展」という三つの位相が含まれていた.一方,企業領域でも,企業環境の複雑化と流動化,そして企業不祥事の続発に対処するために,ガバナンス改革が進んだ.内部統制の概念が拡大され,内部統制を基軸にしたガバナンス構造が確立された.今日のパブリック・ガバナンスとコーポレート・ガバナンスを比較してみると,三つの共通点がある.第 1 に,どちらのガバナンスも,内部コントロールと外部コントロールを組み込み,自律的主体を強制的に生成するような構造を形成していること.第2に,行政組織も企業組織も第一次機能だけでなく,第二次機能(法的・道徳的・社会的機能)を果たすことが強く求められていること.そして第3に,リスク管理としての共通の情報処理様式を確立しようとしていること.このようなガバナンス構造が行政や経済の領域にととどまらず,他の社会領域にも広がっており,現代的ガバナンスとして確立されつつある.現代的ガバナンスの成立には,情報の「収集・蓄積」「変換」「評価」「共有」「設計」という5つの情報機能が含まれており,社会情報学はこれらの情報機能とその社会的仕組みを解明しなければならない.</p>

<p>Starting in the 1980s, both the government and corporations reformed their governance policies and procedures. In the government, "new public management" was introduced in the 1980s, followed by "new public governance" in the 1990s. The shift from new public management to new public governance did not simply replace old procedures with new ones. Instead, it included three distinct phases from new public management: separation, succession, and development. At the same time, reforms in corporate governance were being pushed through to deal with the increasing complexity and liquidity in the business world as well as a series of corporate scandals. The concept of internal controls has been expanded, and governance structures that focus on internal controls have been established. A comparison of public and corporate governance today reveals three common elements. First, both have incorporated internal and external controls and have formed structures that force the creation of autonomous entities. Second, both government and corporate organizations are being called upon to perform not only primary functions but also secondary (legal, ethical, and social) functions as well. Third, both are attempting to develop a common management information system for risk management. Such a governance spreads among not only the domain of administration and the economy but also the domains of the education, and is established as modern governance. This leads us to the recognition that establishing modern governance involves five issues relating to information management: 1) collection and archiving, 2) conversion, 3) assessment, 4) sharing, and 5) design. Social informatics needs to clarify these information functions and their inherent social mechanism.</p>

Journal

  • International Journal of Human Culture Studies

    International Journal of Human Culture Studies 2016(26), 173-189, 2016

    Institute of Human Culture Studies, Otsuma Women's University

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