脳形成における必須脂肪酸の役割 The role of essential fatty acids in brain development
Arachidonic acid （ARA） and docosahexaenoic acid （DHA） are the principal n-6 andn-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids （PUFAs） in the brain, respectively, and essentialfor proper brain development. Previous in vitro studies have revealed that ARAinduces astrocytic differentiation of neural stem cells （NSCs）， and that DHA inducesneuronal differentiation of NSCs. Thus, n-6 and n-3 PUFAs have different roles inbrain development. Regarding the evaluation of in vivo roles of these PUFAs, thebalance of n-6/n-3 PUFAs is considered to be important because these PUFAs competeeach other in their synthesis, metabolism, and transport. Indeed, we have reportedneurodevelopmental consequences of maternal consumption of an n-6-rich/n-3-poor dietin mice. We found that epoxy metabolites of ARA and DHA oppositely regulated theneurogenic-to-gliogenic fate transition of NSCs, and consequently they affected braindevelopment. These findings are scientifically and socially important, because intakeof seed oils, which are abundant in n-6 PUFAs, and that of fishes, which are abundantin n-3 PUFAs, have recently been increased and decreased, respectively, in manycountries. In another study from our collaborators, a mouse model for schizophreniahas been proposed based on phenotypes of offspring derived from pregnant mice fed aPUFA-deficient diet. In the present review, we summarize the functions of dietary n-6and n-3 PUFAs in brain development.
脂質栄養学 27(1), 14-20, 2018