「地域の子育て支援行動尺度」の多世代への適用可能性と支援行動の世代別特徴  [in Japanese] Community Child-Rearing Support Scale: Applicability across generations and differences in the supportive behaviors among generations  [in Japanese]

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Author(s)

    • 小林 江里香 KOBAYASHI Erika
    • 東京都健康長寿医療センター研究所 社会参加と地域保健研究チーム Research Team for Social Participation and Community Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology
    • 藤原 佳典 FUJIWARA Yoshinori
    • 東京都健康長寿医療センター研究所 社会参加と地域保健研究チーム Research Team for Social Participation and Community Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology
    • 野中 久美子 NONAKA Kumiko
    • 東京都健康長寿医療センター研究所 社会参加と地域保健研究チーム Research Team for Social Participation and Community Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology
    • 倉岡 正高 KURAOKA Masataka
    • 東京都健康長寿医療センター研究所 社会参加と地域保健研究チーム Research Team for Social Participation and Community Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology
    • 松永 博子 MATSUNAGA Hiroko
    • 東京都健康長寿医療センター研究所 社会参加と地域保健研究チーム Research Team for Social Participation and Community Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology
    • 村山 幸子 MURAYAMA Sachiko
    • 東京都健康長寿医療センター研究所 社会参加と地域保健研究チーム Research Team for Social Participation and Community Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology
    • 田中 元基 TANAKA Motoki
    • 東京都健康長寿医療センター研究所 社会参加と地域保健研究チーム Research Team for Social Participation and Community Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology
    • 根本 裕太 NEMOTO Yuta
    • 東京都健康長寿医療センター研究所 社会参加と地域保健研究チーム Research Team for Social Participation and Community Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology

Abstract

<p><b>目的</b> 中高年向けに開発された「地域の子育て支援行動尺度」について,1)多世代での尺度の信頼性・妥当性の確認を行い,世代別の2)支援行動の実施状況と内容,3)支援行動の関連要因における特徴を,性差とともに明らかにする。</p><p><b>方法</b> 東京都内と近郊の2地域において無作為抽出された25-84歳の住民を対象に郵送調査を実施し,8,918人(回収率33%)より有効回答を得た。対象者は65-84歳(高年層),50-64歳(中年層),25-49歳(若年層)の3年齢層と性別で分け,1)子育て支援尺度の信頼性係数の算出と確認的因子分析,2)尺度の総合点,および下位尺度別(子どもの安全・健全な成長,親への手段的/情緒的サポート)得点を従属変数とする分散分析,3)子育て支援総合点を目的変数,様々な個人特性を説明変数とする重回帰分析を実施した。</p><p><b>結果</b> 7項目での信頼性係数はどの年齢層も0.85以上と高く,因子分析のモデルの適合度も基準を満たしていた。高年層は中・若年層に比べて「子どもの安全・健全な成長」のための支援を行い,「親への情緒的サポート」も若年層と同程度(女性)かそれ以上に(男性)実施しており,総合点は3年齢層の中で最も高かった。子どもを預かるなどの「親への手段的サポート」得点は,若年層の女性が他集団より高いものの,全体的に低かった。12歳以下の子・孫をもつことと世代性(generativity)は,どの年齢層でも子育て支援得点を高めていたが,若年層では子どもの有無,高齢になるほど世代性との関連が強かった。また,町会やボランティア団体の参加者,高校卒業以下の学歴の人ほど支援している傾向は3年齢層で共通していた一方,若年層のみで賃貸の集合住宅居住者が支援していない傾向がみられた。</p><p><b>結論</b> 「地域の子育て支援行動尺度」は多世代での使用が可能であることと,地域の子育て支援における高齢者の役割の重要性が示された。子育て支援の関連要因には,世代間で共通点・相違点があった。</p>

<p><b>Objectives</b> Using the Community Child-Rearing Support Scale (CCRSS), which was developed for older adults, we examined 1) the reliability and validity of the scale for multiple generations, as well as the generational differences in the 2) degree and content of supportive behaviors for child rearing and 3) correlates of the behavior, in conjunction with gender differences.</p><p><b>Methods</b> A mail survey was conducted with residents aged 25-84 years who were randomly selected from two cities in Tokyo and the surrounding areas, and responses were obtained from 8918 residents (response rate: 33%). The respondents were grouped as follows: old-aged (65-84 years), middle-aged (50-64 years), and young-aged (25-49 years). We performed the following analyses by age group and gender: 1) Cronbach's reliability coefficient and a confirmatory factor analysis of the CCRSS, 2) analysis of variance of the total CCRSS scores and scores of the three subscales ("children's security and sound growth," "instrumental support to parents," and "emotional support to parents"), and 3) a multiple regression analysis of the total scores in which various individual characteristics were introduced as explanatory variables.</p><p><b>Results</b> The reliability coefficient was over 0.85 for each age group, and the factor analysis showed good model fitness. Compared to the middle- and young-aged groups, the old-aged group was more likely to provide support for "children's security and sound growth," and equally (for women) or more likely (for men) to provide "emotional support to parents," thereby resulting in the highest total score among the three generations. The mean score of "instrumental support to parents," such as taking care of a child, was the highest for young women, although the score was low overall. Having a child or grandchild under 13 years old and stronger generativity were positively associated with child-rearing support for all age groups; however, the degree of associations varied across the groups. While having a child was strongly associated with support among the young-aged group, the association between support and generativity was stronger for older groups. Moreover, participation in neighborhood associations or volunteer groups and high school or lower education were associated with more support among all age groups, whereas living in rental apartments was associated with less support among the young-aged group.</p><p><b>Conclusion</b> Our findings suggest that the CCRSS can be used for multiple generations and that old people play an important role in child rearing in the community. We found both differences and similarities between generations with respect to the correlates of child-rearing support.</p>

Journal

  • Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi(JAPANESE JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH)

    Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi(JAPANESE JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH) 65(7), 321-333, 2018

    Japanese Society of Public Health

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130007427878
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00189323
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0546-1766
  • NDL Article ID
    029116512
  • NDL Call No.
    Z19-216
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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