縄文時代の植物のドメスティケーション  [in Japanese] Domestication of plants during the Jomon period  [in Japanese]

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Author(s)

    • 那須 浩郎 Nasu Hiroo
    • 岡山理科大学生物地球学部 Department of Biosphere-Geosphere Science, Okayama University of Science

Abstract

<p>本論文では遺跡から出土したダイズ,アズキ,ヒエ属の種子サイズデータを集成し,縄文時代における形態上のドメスティケーション(種子の大型化)の過程を検討した.ダイズとアズキは6,000年前頃から4,000年前頃にかけて中部高地と関東地方西部地域(諸磯・勝坂式土器文化圏)において出土数が増加し,現在の野生種よりも大型の種子が出現していた.この種子の出土数の増加と大型化は,当時の人口増加と連動していた可能性があり,この時期に形態上のドメスティケーション(種子の大型化)が始まったと考えられる.しかしながら,この時期には小型の種子も依然として見られ,大型の種子をつける品種がまだ定着していなかったか,野生種の採集も継続していた可能性がある.4,000年前以降になると中部高地からは大型種子が見られなくなり,その代わりに九州地方や西日本で見られるようになる.この時期には大型種子の品種が定着し,栽培されていた可能性が高い.ヒエ属についても,東北地方北部で6,000年前頃,北海道渡島半島で4,500年前頃に,時期は異なるものの,同じ円筒式土器文化圏で大型種子が一時的に見られる.この大型化はそれぞれの時期の人口増加と連動しており,この時期に一時的な形態上のドメスティケーションが起きていた可能性があるが,その後は10世紀まで大型種子が見られない.10世紀以降には小型の種子も少なくなることから,この頃にヒエ属の大型種子が定着したと考えられる. </p>

<p>This paper compiles archaeobotanical size data of soybean, azuki, and <i>Echinochloa</i> (barnyard grass) and discusses the process of morphological domestication (seed enlargement) of these three plants during the Jomon period. The archaeobotanical records of soybean and azuki increased from 6000 to 4000 years ago in the Chubu and western Kanto regions (Moroiso-Katsusaka Pottery grope), and the records include seeds larger than modern wild species. This trend was linked with the population growth in this region, and morphological domestication probably started from this period. However, small seeds have also been seen in this stage ; gathering of wild species by the people probably still continued, or large seed species were not fixed. Large seed species disappeared in the Chubu region 4000 years ago ; however, the large seeds can be seen in Kyushu and western Japan. Probably the large seed species were fixed from this stage, and cultivation of these large species at least had started in this period. In the case of <i>Echinochloa</i> (barnyard grass), the seed size temporally enlarged 6000 years ago in the northern Tohoku, and 4500 years ago in the southern Hokkaido region (Ento pottery group). This seed enlargement was also linked with population growth in each period and region. There are some possibilities that morphological domestication temporally occurred in these periods ; however, large seeds were not seen until the 10th century. Since the small seeds of <i>Echinochloa</i> were not seen after the 10<sup>th</sup> century, it seems that the large seed species have been fixed since this period.</p>

Journal

  • The Quaternary Research (Daiyonki-Kenkyu)

    The Quaternary Research (Daiyonki-Kenkyu) 57(4), 109-126, 2018

    Japan Association for Quaternary Research

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130007440207
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN0034136X
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0418-2642
  • NDL Article ID
    029192924
  • NDL Call No.
    Z15-67
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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