中国の大学キャンパスにおけるオープンスペースの外構要素と配置形式 [in Japanese] FUNCTIONS AND LAYOUT OF LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS IN OPEN SPACES OF UNIVERSITY CAMPUSES IN CHINA [in Japanese]
Access this Article
Search this Article
Introduction:<br> University campuses started to be built since the late 19th century in China, strongly influenced by the Beaux-Arts planning style, characterized by monumental buildings with strong axis and enclosed open space. Together with the main buildings constructed in different periods, such open spaces become representive spaces in the uiniversities, and also form outdoor activity and circulation spaces for students and faculties with various landscape elements such as garden, square, walking path, bench, etc.. By analysing the functions and layout of landscape elements under the influence of the distinctive Chinese cultural and social background, this study aims to clarify the characteristics of landscape composition in open spaces in China.<br><br> Methods:<br> One open space faced by main buildings and enclosed by buildings or urban roads on at least two sides is defined as "campus open space unit (COS unit)", and the set of such units as "COS". Based on such definitions, 142 COS units and 54 COS are extracted from 54 campuses built before 1949.<br> Firstly, by dividing the construction year of buildings into four phases according to the Chinese historical background, phases of buildings surrounding the COS units and the number of COS units in each campus were examined as a brief overview.<br> Secondly, in order to discuss the functional characteristics of landscape elements, types of plane/line/point elements related to the static/dynamic behavior, and their combination were examined in each COS unit.<br> Thirdly, in order to discuss how landscape elements form a symbolic space with the surrounding buildings, layout of landscape elements related to the main building and school gate were examined in each COS unit.<br> Fourthly, based on the results above, 6 patterns of landscape unit categorized by the combination of function and layout of landscape elements were discussed. Moreover, according to the static/dynamic and symbolic/non-symbolic characters, combinations of these patterns in each campus were divided into 8 types of landscape composition, and distribution of cases, relations and inclination of types were examined.<br><br> Results:<br> 1) Multiple COS units, surrounding by buildings built in different phases, are formed in many campuses.<br> 2) More COS units were built as static gardens by vegetation and water than only as square or playground for dynamic activities. Influenced by the traditional Chinese culture, natural environment is considered appropiate to the campus, rather than built by only artificial materials.<br> 3) Completely symmetric layout is formed by only one strong axis, while basically/partially symmetric layout is sometimes formed by multiple axes of main buildings constructed in different phases. More symmetric layouts are usually formed by one plane element, while multiple elements mixed in one COS unit are in less symmetry.<br> 4) Static and dynamic, symbolic and non-symbolic COS units coexist in many campuses. More COS units with single plane element connected to the school gate are gardens and in symmetric layout, creating a sequence from formal to casual, while the ones with multiple elements create continuous spaces with various atmospheres for different activities.<br><br> Conclusions:<br> This study has clarified that the characteristics of landscape composition in open spaces in China are related to the function and layout of landscape elements. By the construction over years with different time trends, open spaces are composed by various landscape elements in symmetric or asymmetric layout, forming a hybrid characteristics in many campuses.
- Journal of Architecture and Planning (Transactions of AIJ)
Journal of Architecture and Planning (Transactions of AIJ) (750), 1415-1424, 2018-08
Architectural Institute of Japan