タブレットを用いたシミュレーション活動が中学校理科での遺伝の規則性の学習と優性の概念へ与える影響  [in Japanese] Android tablet applications for lower secondary education to promote understanding of Mendelian inheritance and dominant and recessive traits  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<p>ICT授業の実現に向け,タブレット等を利用した学習教材の充実が求められている.本研究では,中学校理科第3学年の「遺伝の規則性と遺伝子」の分野での2つのシミュレーション教材を作成した.1つは,ヘテロの対立遺伝子(Aa)をもつ個体同士の掛け合わせにより,次世代の遺伝子型の頻度は優性ホモ(AA):ヘテロ(Aa):劣性ホモ(aa)が1:2:1となり,優性の形質と劣性の形質が3:1で現れることをシミュレーションするアプリケーションを作成した.この教材を用いた授業により,従来のカードや割り箸などを用いた実験に比べ,試行回数を増やすことができ,生徒1人ひとりが期待値に近似した実験結果を得ることができることが示された.本教材を授業で使用する上では,タブレットで何を行っているのか,シミュレーションの原理を実験前に丁寧に説明することが必要である.もう1つは,優性・劣性という用語が生存上の有利・不利とは関係ないことを学ぶためのアプケーションを作成した.内容は工業暗化の事象を取り上げ,優性の形質をもつ体色の黒いガは,背景が黒い環境では生存に有利で集団中で数多くを占めるものの,背景が白い環境では生存が不利になり,集団中で個体数が減少することを黒いガと白いガに対する捕食圧をシミュレーションするものとした.この教材を用いることで,生徒は優性・劣性という概念が個体の有利さ・不利さとは関係ないことを理解することができると予測していた.授業の結果,シミュレーションを通して生徒は優性の形質は生存上の有利な形質とは言えないことを結論付けられた一方で,質問紙を用いた調査から,授業の後も優性・劣性という用語を依然として形質の有利・不利と関連付けて考えていることが示された.</p>

<p>In order to promote information and communications technology (ICT) education, demand for the development of tablet-learning materials continues to increase. In this study, we created two simulations for teaching "genetic regularity and genes" in a lower secondary school science class. The first application simulated following genetic regularity. When parents have genotypes of heterozygotes, the ratio of offspring genotypes is "dominant homozygotes: heterozygotes: recessive homozygotes" = "1: 2: 1" and the ratio of offspring traits is "dominant traits: recessive traits" = "3: 1." When our tablet application was used in the class, students were able to create more offspring genotypes and to get more accuracy results from simulation as compared to the general method of using chopsticks. Our second application was a simulation showing that the terms of a "dominance" trait or a "recessive" trait is not related to the selective advantage or disadvantage of the individual. The industrial melanism of a species of moth was provided as an example. In this simulation, it was assumed that the dominant and recessive traits were black and white body colors, respectively. The application simulated the likelihood of survival of the moths. The black (white) moths were at an advantage for survival when the background color was black (white), whereas they were at a disadvantage for survival when the background was white (black). We expected that using the application would help the students to realize that the terms "dominance" and "recessive" are not related to selective advantage or disadvantage. When our tablet application was used in the class, most of the students were able to reach the conclusion that a dominant trait was not necessarily mean a selective advantageous trait. However, as a result of questionnaire survey, the students' misconception for dominance and recessive was not revised.</p>

Journal

  • Japanese Journal of Biological Education

    Japanese Journal of Biological Education 59(2), 64-74, 2018

    The Society of Biological Science Education of Japan

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130007501149
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN0012957X
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0287-119X
  • NDL Article ID
    029012534
  • NDL Call No.
    Z18-53
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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