ケニアにおける難民の「安全保障化」をめぐるパラドクス  [in Japanese] The Paradox of Securitization and Politics of Refugees in Kenya  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<p>The linking of refugee movements with insecurity is not recent phenomenon. Throughout history refugee movements has often been perceived as threat and had strong political implication for states. Since the end of Cold War, and in particular after terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 in the United States, the issue of refugee movement has not only become a crucial political agenda, but it has been thoroughly securitised in Africa. The language of threat or danger dominates refugee discourse, and refugees have become a security agenda rather than a humanitarian issue. As a result, various refugee hosting states in Africa to change their refugee policies by implementing restrictive measures which deny human rights of asylum seekers and refugees.</p><p>Reflecting on increased concerns regarding state security, refugee and forced migration studies has rapidly expanded its researches regarding the relationship between refugee and security in refugee hosting countries. However, as far as researches about refugee or forced migrant in Africa concerned, in opposition to general trend in migrant studies in Europe or North America, there are a few researches regarding correlation between refugees and security in Africa. Certainly a number of security analysts examine the impact of refugee movements on national or/and international security, but most of their researches have focused on refugee hosting countries in global north and prioritise state security at expense of refugee protection.</p><p>Concerning these research gaps, this paper analyses the nature and extent of refugee threats to refugee-housing countries in Africa from a case study of Kenya. From previous studies provided by other scholars, this paper firstly considers two approaches of securitization: the Copenhagen school provided by Barry Buzan, Ole Wæver, and Japp De Wilde; and the Paris school leaded by Didier Bigo and Jef Huysman,. Then, this paper addresses three main questions. First, in Kenya how the issues relating refugees are securitized? It traces the development of refugee policies since 1963. Second, the paper questions about the empirical relationship between refugees and security in Kenya. It focuses on Somali refugees in Kenya examines whether Somali refugees directly relate to recent terrorist incidents in Kenya. Third, if Somali refugees are not sources of terrorism or other insecurity, why does the Kenyan government accuse Somali refugees as a threat to security and defend restrictive refugee policies. This paper will then discuss the consequences of securitization and appropriate solutions for dealing with refugees and asylum seekers.</p>

Journal

  • International Relations

    International Relations 2018(190), 190_114-190_129, 2018

    JAPAN ASSOCIATION OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

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