説法師(dharmabhāṇaka)考  [in Japanese] On the <i>Dharmabhāṇaka</i>  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<p>The importance of the <i>dharmabhāṇaka</i> has long been recognized, but there are many aspects that remain unclear, such as whether or not there were renunciants, their relationship with lay believers and bodhisattvas, and their role. In this paper, I accordingly examine the <i>dharmabhāṇaka</i> as described in Mahāyāna sutras and their position from a fresh perspective.</p><p>Basically, the <i>dhammakathika</i> as a monk can be seen in both so-called mainstream schools and the Mahāyāna, but the term <i>dharmabhāṇaka</i> is found in the Mahāyāna and only in sutras. However, the term <i>dharmakathika</i> is occasionally found, for example, in the "Pañcabhikṣuśatavyākaraṇa-parivarta" of the <i>Saddharmapuṇḍarīka-sūtra</i> (4 instances), while <i>dhārmakathika</i> appears once in the <i>Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā</i>. In these cases, they are titles applied to specific disciples such as Pūrṇa and Subhūti. In other words, in Mahāyāna sutras the term <i>dharmabhāṇaka</i> was in broad general use, while <i>dharmakathika</i> was no more than a vestige of early Buddhism.</p><p>The <i>dharmabhāṇaka</i> replaced the <i>dharmakathika</i> in Mahāyāna sutras, and he would have had the following characteristics:</p><p>(1) While inheriting the attributes of the renunciant <i>dhammakathika</i>, the <i>dharmabhāṇaka</i> became a new promoter of Buddhist beliefs.</p><p>(2) The <i>dharmabhāṇaka</i> was closely linked to the <i>caitya</i> worship of the early Mahāyāna, with the place where he preached the Dharma becoming a sacred <i>caitya</i>, and the <i>dharmabhāṇaka</i> who preached the Dharma was worshipped in the same way that the Buddha was.</p><p>(3) The <i>dharmabhāṇaka</i> was protected by gods such as Śakra and the four <i>lokapāla</i>s. When preaching the Dharma, he was confirmed unimpeded wisdom and <i>dhāraṇī</i>s by them, and also granted eloquence (<i>pratibhāna</i>) to facilitate his preaching of the Dharma.</p><p>(4) In almost all sutras the dharmabhāṇaka is deemed to be a monk, but in the system of ten stages of practice it is said that the practitioner leaves home to become a renunciant in the fifth stage and then becomes a <i>dharmabhāṇaka</i>.</p><p>(5) In the Mahāyāna, no distinction is made between the renunciant and the layman in the case of bodhisattvas and <i>kulaputra</i>s. Both the bodhisattva <i>dharmabhāṇaka</i> and those listening to his sermon call each other <i>kulaputra</i>, and there are no distinctions of rank in this term.</p><p>(6) The <i>dharmabhāṇaka</i> is usually a monk or a renunciant. But there is the possibility that he may not have been a formally ordained monk and may have resided not in a monastery but in the forest or the wilderness.</p><p>In light of above, one cannot gainsay the possibility that the <i>dharmabhāṇaka</i> may have been involved in the creation of new Mahāyāna sutras.</p>

Journal

  • Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies (Indogaku Bukkyogaku Kenkyu)

    Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies (Indogaku Bukkyogaku Kenkyu) 66(1), 404-398, 2017

    Japanese Association of Indian and Buddhist Studies

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130007555984
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00018579
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0019-4344
  • NDL Article ID
    028737776
  • NDL Call No.
    Z9-55
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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