地蔵像撤去・破壊から見た廃仏毀釈  [in Japanese] The Meiji Era Anti-Buddhist Movement as Seen from the Removal and Destruction of <i>Jizō</i> Statuary  [in Japanese]

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<p>明治時代初期において、地蔵像等の仏像が撤去・破壊された事例が全国に散見する。本稿では、地域を絞って、地蔵像等の仏像撤去・破壊の原因を解明することを目的とする。</p><p>京都府・大阪府・滋賀県の三地域では、開化政策の一環として、路傍の地蔵像が撤去され、地蔵祭が禁止された。しかしながら、開化政策の一環であったためか、三地域いずれも明治時代中期には、地蔵像が再安置されている。</p><p>加賀藩・富山藩では、当初、粛々と神仏分離が行われた。その後、富山藩では経済政策として寺院整理が行われ、仏像が鋳つぶされた。加賀藩を引き継いだ石川県は、水源確保を目的として白山より仏像を下山させ、時に仏像は破壊された。</p><p>東京都御蔵島では、神道思想に基づき、寺が廃寺となり、地蔵像が破壊された。</p><p>明治時代初期において、地蔵像等仏像が撤去・破壊された原因として、①開化政策、②神道思想に基づく廃仏毀釈の二つがあることが判明した。</p>

<p>In the early stages of the Meiji era, Buddhist statues, such as those of <i>Jizō</i> (<i>Ksitigarbha</i>), were removed or destroyed. In this paper, I focus on specific localities and analyze the reasons for the removal or destruction of these Buddhist statues.</p><p>In three areas (Kyoto, Osaka, and Shiga Prefecture), statues of <i>Jizō</i>―all of which were located on roadsides―were removed as part of the so-called "civilization policy." However, perhaps due to this "civilization policy," in all of these three areas <i>Jizō</i> statues were re-installed in the mid-Meiji era.</p><p>In Kaga-han and Toyama-han the separation of Shinto-Buddhist-deities was originally enacted without trouble. Subsequently, in Toyama-han the reduction of temples was undertaken as part of economic policy and Buddhist statues were melted down. For the purpose of securing sources of water, Ishikawa Prefecture―Kaga-han's successor―removed Buddhist statues from Mt. Hakusan and also destroyed a number of them.</p><p>In Tokyo's Mikurajima, an area grounded in Shinto, Buddhist temples were abolished and statues of <i>Jizō</i> were destroyed.</p><p>There were two reasons that Buddhist statues were removed or destroyed in the early stages of the Meiji era. One was the aforementioned "civilization policy" and another was the Shinto-based anti-Buddhist movement.</p>

Journal

  • Journal of religious studies

    Journal of religious studies 92(2), 107-130, 2018

    Japanese Association for Religious Studies

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