焼畑先住民社会における資源利用制度の正当性をめぐる競合――インドネシア東カリマンタン州・ベシ村の事例――  [in Japanese] The Struggle for New Legitimate Customary Resource Management Rules in an Indigenous Swidden Society: A Case Study of Besiq Village, East Kalimantan, Indonesia  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<p>インドネシアでは地方分権化・民主化以降,住民参加型・協働型の資源管理政策・事業が重視されるようになってきた。しかし,政策・事業の重要アクターである先住民の社会では資源利用制度をめぐる混乱が生じており,その実態解明が求められる。本稿は東カリマンタン州の焼畑社会において,1)資源利用制度の正当性をめぐる競合と2)新たな制度の普及プロセスを明らかにする。</p><p>村人は「(働きかけや歴史性に基づく)権利意識」「稀少性」「トゥラシの規範(相手の生活を思いやる規範)」を基準に資源利用制度の正当性を判断していた。地方分権化・民主化以降,特定の相続集団の原生的森林地域に対する「(歴史性に基づく)権利意識」と資源・土地の「稀少性」が高まった。そして,その相続集団は,相続集団外の村人の資源利用に対して,従来の自由なアクセスではなく,「アクセス不可」や「条件付きアクセス」を要求するようになった。一方,相続集団外の村人は,原生的森林地域を地方分権化・民主化以前のように「(働きかけに基づく)権利意識」が低く,資源・土地の「稀少性」も低い地域と認識しており,その「アクセス不可」と「条件付きアクセス」に正当性を付与していなかった。しかし,正当性が十分付与されていないにもかかわらず,一部の「条件付きアクセス」は社会に普及しつつあった。その普及のメカニズムは衝突の忌避と互酬行為という文化的要因に基づいていることが明らかになった。</p>

<p>Much value has been placed on collaborative and participatory methods in resource management policies since decentralization and democratization in Indonesia. Although indigenous people are necessarily important actors in implementation, social confusion regarding the customary rules of resource management has emerged in indigenous societies. The aim of this paper is to understand 1) the struggles of indigenous peoples for new legitimate customary resource management rules following decentralization and democratization, and 2) the process of accepting new rules in a case study of an indigenous swidden society in East Kalimantan.</p><p>The concept of legitimacy consists of three factors : a sense of entitlement to resources based on management or a history of use, resource scarcity, and thoughtful and sympathetic feelings, known as <i>Terasi</i> among the Benuaq people, who are indigenous swiddeners. After decentralization and democratization, a particular descendent group developed a strong sense of entitlement based on its history of use and higher resource scarcity in the group's semi-primary forest area. Therefore, they attempted to implement new rules regarding resource use in their semi-primary forest by people outside the group, such as granting conditional access rights, or in some cases not granting any access rights, instead of the free or permitted access rights that existed before decentralization and democratization. However, the outsiders did not recognize the new trial rules as legitimate. Their rationale was 1) the descendent group's sense of entitlement in the semi-primary forest should be curtailed because the group did not manage the forest resources and land, and 2) there was still little scarcity of resources in the semi-primary forest areas. Although some conditional access rights have not yet gained sufficient legitimacy in the eyes of the outsiders, they accepted the new trial rules, which are percolating throughout indigenous swidden society, by virtue of cultural elements such as conflict avoidance and reciprocal logic and action.</p>

Journal

  • Journal of Environmental Sociology

    Journal of Environmental Sociology 22(0), 82-99, 2017

    Japanese Association for Environmental Sociology

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130007601934
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN10498448
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • NDL Article ID
    027988270
  • NDL Call No.
    Z6-B659
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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