水辺コミュニティの水利用史からみた農業の持続性――有明海干拓農村における水田稲作農業の持続理由――  [in Japanese] Sustainable Agriculture in a Coastal Community from the Perspective of Water Use History: Reasons for Continuing Rice Farming in a Reclaimed Village on the Ariake Coast  [in Japanese]

Access this Article

Search this Article

Author(s)

Abstract

<p>現代の農業の持続性を考えたとき,サステイナブルな農業,つまり生態系と調和した農業という回答の仕方もあるが,水田の保全に限ってみても,その持続性の理解について合意があるとはいえない。その理由の1つに生態系というエコロジーの考え方と農民の考える農業の持続性とのズレがある。本稿では,水田と水との関係に強い関心が向けられてきた有明海に面した水辺コミュニティを取り上げ,そこでの「むら」の組織を用いた稲作農業の維持への取り組みを事例として,なぜ,この地区の人々が水田稲作にこだわるのかについて考察した。この地区では,農業と生活の近代化のなかで水と住民との関わりがほぼ失われた結果,水への住民の関心の低下が著しい。本稿では,水田での稲作は地域の水環境に住民が働きかける数少ない機会となっており,稲作の衰退はむらの領土保全の中核となる農家にとってゆゆしき問題として理解されていることを明らかにした。稲作と水との関係が意識される背景には,むら人のノリ養殖の場所である有明海の環境が悪化したことによって,ますます高度な水管理が求められるようになっていることがある。水社会の一員としての現代水辺コミュニティにおける水と人との関わりの鍵となっているのが,稲作なのである。</p>

<p>Sustainable agriculture is generally acknowledged as necessary for the continuance of modern farming, and it is usually emphasized that ecologically harmonious agriculture is one condition of sustainable agriculture. However, there are widely varying interpretations of sustainability depending on viewpoint. In Japan, rice cultivation and the lifestyles of rural residents are growing farther apart because of the rapidly decreasing number of rice farmers. This paper focuses on the fact that Japanese farmers' own thoughts about agricultural sustainability derive from their efforts to maintain paddy fields in a Japanese rural community. The study investigates the farmers' anxiety, which prompted a rice farming reconstruction for continuing rice cultivation in a reclaimed village on the Ariake Coast of Japan. In this coastal community, farmers had to be cautious about watering rice fields because there tends to be an irrigation water shortage in reclaimed villages facing the sea. Therefore, irrigation water was strictly controlled by the community organization. Furthermore, the rapidly decreasing number of rice farmers provoked a sense of crisis in the few remaining farmers about whether or not to continue farming. It was predicted that the farmers would worry about the change in the relationship between water and residents' lifestyles with rice farming in decline. However, they decided to commit to rice farming through the community organization (MURA). The paper examines the fact that the farmers' reorganization in order to continue rice farming was due to environmental difficulties resulting from the decline in rice farming by water use history analysis. The results show that the residents lost almost all their familiar connections with water by modernizing their everyday water and irrigation systems, and the paper presents a discussion of the consequent implications for rice farming. The study concludes that local farmers thought it was important to maintain rice farming through a village organization in their coastal community, and one influence on their decision was the environmental degradation of the water quality in the Ariake inner bay, which meant higher level water resource management was needed.</p>

Journal

  • Journal of Environmental Sociology

    Journal of Environmental Sociology 22(0), 41-58, 2017

    Japanese Association for Environmental Sociology

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130007602846
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN10498448
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • NDL Article ID
    027988071
  • NDL Call No.
    Z6-B659
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
Page Top