視能訓練士を対象とした知的障害児の検査・対応に関する実態調査  [in Japanese] A Questionnaire Survey to Orthoptists on the Current Situation of Ophthalmic Examinations for Children With Intellectual Disabilities  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<p><b>【目的】</b>知的障害児は高頻度に視機能障害を伴い、視機能管理の重要性が報告されている。しかし、眼科医療でどのように知的障害児に対応しているのか実態はわかっていない。そこで今回、視機能評価の現状や今後の課題を明らかにすることを目的とし、視能訓練士を対象とした質問紙法による調査を行った。</p><p><b>【対象及び方法】</b>平成28年7月~9月に、日本小児眼科学会・日本弱視斜視学会に所属する医師が在籍する病院、大学附属病院、小児専門病院、療育施設に併設する眼科および診療所より重複を除いた計324施設に勤務する視能訓練士を対象とし、無記名自記式質問紙法を実施した。</p><p><b>【結果】</b>視能訓練士727人(191施設)の回答が得られた。知的障害児の視力検査法について学習経験のある視能訓練士は31%、知能・発達検査の学習経験については17%のみであり、知的障害児が来院した際の検査方法や対応について82%の視能訓練士が迷った経験があると答えていた。知的障害児に対する医療・対応の現状や今後の課題については、知的障害に関する知識獲得や検査法の向上についての意見が60件と最も多い結果であった。</p><p><b>【結論】</b>多くの視能訓練士が知的障害児の検査方法や対応について迷った経験があり、知的障害について学ぶ機会を得たいという積極的な意見が多くみられた。障害特性や自覚的な検査が困難な児に対する視機能評価法についての知識や技術の向上の必要性が示唆された。</p>

<p><b>[Purpose] </b>Children with intellectual disabilities frequently have visual impairments, and the importance of visual care for them has been reported. However, it is not clear what kind of support for visual care has been provided to these children. To better understand the current situation and future tasks for assessment of their visual performance, we conducted a questionnaire survey to orthoptists in this study.</p><p><b>[Subjects and Methods] </b>We distributed an anonymous self-administered questionnaire to orthoptists working at 324 facilities including university hospitals, special pediatric hospitals, and ophthalmic clinics in care facilities with ophthalmologists who were members of the Japanese Association of Pediatric Ophthalmology or Japanese Association of Strabismus and Amblyopia. No subject was double counted. The survey period was between July and September, 2016. </p><p><b>[Results] </b>A total of 727 orthoptists from 191 facilities responded. Orthoptists who had learned about visual testing for children with intellectual disabilities accounted for 31%, and only 17% had learned about intelligence and development testing. The results also showed that 82% of the orthoptists had experienced confusion responding to or performing visual tests on children with intellectual disabilities. Regarding the current situation and future tasks of providing health care and support for children with intellectual disabilities, the most common remark (60 remarks) was the need for better knowledge about intellectual disabilities and improved skill for performing visual tests for these children. </p><p><b>[Conclusion] </b>Most of the orthoptists have experienced confusion about proper response and way of conducting visual tests for children with intellectual disabilities, and would like to have more opportunities to learn about intellectual disabilities. This indicated the need for orthoptists to improve their knowledge of disability and the skill when assessing visual performance in children with difficulties to take subjective visual tests.</p>

Journal

  • JAPANESE ORTHOPTIC JOURNAL

    JAPANESE ORTHOPTIC JOURNAL 47(0), 211-217, 2018

    JAPANESE ASSOCIATION OF CERTIFIED ORTHOPTISTS

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