言語マイノリティの平等な教育機会の保障における学校選択の可能性:─カリフォルニア州における双方向イマージョン・プログラム実施校の検討─  [in Japanese] THE POTENTIAL FOR SCHOOL CHOICE TO SECURE EQUAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR LANGUAGE MINORITIES : A STUDY OF TWOWAY IMMERSION PROGRAMS IN CALIFORNIA  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<p>In California, bilingual education programs, which both English and language minorities' primary language are taught in, have been restricted in all public schools since 1998 due to the adoption of Proposition 227. Since then all students, including language minority students, have been taught only in English as a rule.</p><p>However, as the California law does allow parents to choose their children's school, they can choose schools that implement bilingual programs.</p><p>Recently, in the U.S., especially in California, the number of schools implementing Two-Way Immersion (TWI) programs has been increasing. TWI programs include a fairly equal number of both native English speakers and English language learners (language minorities). The goals of these programs are for both groups of students to become bilingual and for their academic performance to be at or above grade level. Because the use of minority languages is restricted by Proposition 227, the implementation of these programs is based on parental choice of schools.</p><p>Critics of school choice policies, especially charter schools, argue that these policies divide U.S. society along racial or ethnic lines and increase segregation by race and class.</p><p>The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential for school choice to secure equal educational opportunities for language minorities. This will be done by analyzing the racial and ethnic composition and social stratum in TWI schools.</p><p>The findings of these analyses are as follows: 1) There are many segregated schools in which the majority of students are Hispanic. But some schools are integrated and the criticism of the disunited society does not always apply to the TWI schools. 2) Most TWI schools have a high percentage of Hispanic students who mainly speak Spanish at home, but these programs integrate Hispanic (language minority) students into English speaking society and the parents of students at the Language Academy of Sacramento (LAS), a charter school, recognize the importance of English in the U.S. and a globalized world. Moreover, it must be noted that the high proportion of Hispanic students is a result of a fair procedure to admit students. 3) At Fairmount Elementary School, which is located in a predominantly white and upper-class area of San Francisco, the students are being racially integrated gradually, because white, upper-class parents take an interest in the TWI program. LAS, which is located in a predominantly lower-class and nonwhite area, attracts parents and students of middle or upper classes outside its attendance area. These schools (re) unite the social classes (lower, middle, upper) as well as races or ethnicities (white and Hispanic).</p><p>The existence of so many segregated TWI schools does not allow for any optimism about (re) unification of races and classes. However, the two aforementioned schools, which are realizing (re) unification, show the potential for school choice to secure equal educational opportunities for high academic achievement of language minorities after the passage of Proposition 227, counteracting the criticisms of school choice.</p>

Journal

  • Bulletin of the Japan Educational Administration Society

    Bulletin of the Japan Educational Administration Society 40(0), 91-108, 2014

    The Japan Educational Administration Society

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130007616572
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0919-8393
  • Data Source
    J-STAGE 
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