中心地理論とナチ・ドイツの編入東部地域における中心集落再配置計画  [in Japanese] Central Place Theory and Nazi German Planning for Reorganizing the Central Settlement System in Incorporated Eastern Territories  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<p>本稿は,ナチ・ドイツによるポーランド西部の編入東部地域における中心集落再配置計画最終案と中心地理論との関係について考察した.1941 年頃,Christaller は,編入東部地域の中心集落再配置計画という課題に対し,オリジナルな中心地理論に変更を加えた混合中心地階層の考え方に基づいて計画案を作成したが,最終計画案に直接盛り込まれることはなかった.編入東部地域における中心集落再配置計画案策定の重責を担うドイツ民族性強化帝国委員会の都市建設部門・空間計画部門の統括責任者であったUmlauf によって作成されたものが,最終計画案となった.この最終計画案はChristaller の計画案とは中心集落の規模階層ならびに配置の点で全く異なるものであった.両者の違いは,農村的色彩を残し,一部はポーランド風の集落景観を呈する,規模の小さい都市集落の,中心集落ネットワークへの積極的組み込みの如何によるものであった.しかしながら,最終計画案における集落階層構成が入れ子構造をなしている点は,集落の勢力圏の形が円形と六角形という違いはあるとしても,Christaller の計画案の集落階層構成が入れ子構造をなしている点と共通しており,そこに最終計画案に対する中心地理論ないしは混合中心地階層の考え方の影響を観て取ることができるのである.</p>

<p>This paper considers the relationship between central place theory and Nazi German planning for the reorganization of the central settlement network in incorporated Eastern territories, or occupied western Poland. The investigation is focused on clarifying that the reorganization plan Christaller (1941) had proposed was not greatly reflected in the final plan, which is an issue not fully addressed by previous studies. Details of how the plan ran its course are also examined. The results are summarized as follows. In order to achieve the goal of reorganizing the central settlement system in incorporated Eastern territories, Christaller (1941) drafted a plan based on a concept of mixed central place hierarchy that was developed by modifying his original central place theory (Christaller 1933), influenced by the market area theory of Losch (1940). The system of mixed central place hierarchy, in which the hierarchies are alternately removed from the original central place theory, could be applied to the problem to delimitate administrative areas, as it comprises a structure in which the sphere of influence of the central place in the upper hierarchy completely covers those in the lower hierarchy. Arguing that Christaller's settlement classification between the central place and the dispersed place was inappropriate and that central place theory was unable to explain settlement location in real regions, Geisler (1941) proposed an alternate plan for reorganizing the central settlement system: central settlements should be established not on the basis of centrality but on the basis of urban potential, taking into account industrial location. According to Geisler (1941), topographic site (natural conditions) and geographic location (traffic conditions) contribute to urban potential, both of which had been given great importance as research themes in the landscape school of German urban geographers such as Geisler, before the appearance of functional urban geography, which Bobek and Christaller undertook. Geisler's plan thus implied a criticism of functional urban geography. Christaller and Geisler emphasized the supremacy of their own plans, but neither of their plans resulted in being incorporated fully into the final plan.</p>

Journal

  • Urban Geography

    Urban Geography 10(0), 1-33, 2015

    The Japanese society of Urban Geography

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130007629905
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA12476874
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1880-9499
  • NDL Article ID
    026545197
  • NDL Call No.
    Z71-R125
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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