保育供給主体の多元化と公務員保育士:―公共セクターから見るジェンダー平等政策の陥穽―  [in Japanese] Public Sector Childcare Teachers in the Transformation of the Public Sector as Employer and Provider of Social Services:: Friend or Foe for Gender Equality ?  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<p> 福祉国家の展開過程において公共セクターは女性をよりよい雇用へと結びつけ,ジェンダー平等を促進する役割を果たしてきた。しかし,緊縮財政政策と世界的な景気後退によって女性の多い社会サービス分野の再編が進んでおり,公共セクターとジェンダー平等との関係は変化しようとしている。本稿では供給主体の多元化と市場化政策によって再編された日本の保育分野に着目し,公共セクターが政策実行者としても雇用者としてもケアワークの労働力編成に対するジェンダー変革的機能を弱化させ,ジェンダー不平等を拡大させていると主張する。第一に,保育士の社会的経済的評価の低下は2000年代以降に顕在化したものであり,公共セクターの保育サービス供給を縮小させる過程で公務員保育士の集団的交渉力を弱化させつつ保育士をコストとして削減対象としていったことを論じる。第二に,大阪市の保育士給料表を事例として公共セクターが積極的にジェンダー格差を拡大していったことを明らかにする。</p>

<p>Along with the development of welfare states, the public sector has played a significant role in integrating women into better employment and promoting gender equality. By contrast, the size of the female workforce in the public sector in Japan has been small, and both national and local governments are not proactive employers of women. However, childcare teachers have been an exception. Local governments were major employers by the mid―1990s and these teachers were organized by public sector unions. Through employment in the public sector, they have, to some degree, earned public recognition as workers in a respectable occupation for women with fair employment conditions. Nevertheless, their occupational status and employment conditions have been undermined not only by the transformation of public sector employment in the 2000s. The question is why and how this on―going degradation and deterioration of care work have been socially and politically justified. First, I show that both the national and local governments have been preparing for a policy shift since the early 1970s by diminishing their role to set the working conditions for childcare teachers in the public sector as the reference point for the working conditions of childcare teachers as a whole. Second, taking the case of the revised pay scale in Osaka City, I analyze its policy process and the downward pressure on the pay rates of public sector childcare teachers exerted by the pay rates of those in the private sector, where there is a large gender disparity and pay is lower than the average for the industry as a whole. In this review, I argue that the government is now taking the role of reproducing unequal gender relations in care work by both rejecting the gender equal route that could be taken through public sector employment and concealing the gender bias built into Japan's "Promoting Women's Active Participation" policy.</p>

Journal

  • Social Policy and Labor Studies

    Social Policy and Labor Studies 8(3), 62-78, 2017

    Japan Association for Social Policy Studies

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130007632943
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1883-1850
  • Data Source
    J-STAGE 
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