大学改革は研究活動を改善したか  [in Japanese] Has University Reform Improved University Research Activities?  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<p> 1990年代以降の研究活動の改革を含む大学改革は,3つの理念により先導されてきた.第1は1990年代前半からの「基礎研究シフト」や博士後期課程の拡大などによる拡大モデルである.これは,90年代半ばから徐々に,イノベーション・モデルとも呼ぶべき,科学技術と社会経済的価値との関連性を重視した改革モデルと,ニューパブリック・マネジメント・モデルとも呼ぶべき改革モデルに置き換えられていく.改革は,90年代には大学の研究活動を拡大する方向に働いたが,2000年代には改革の成果があがっているとは言いがたい.むしろ,大学間格差の拡大,ポスドクの増加などが顕在化し,「選択と集中」の方向性は妥当なのか,システムに矛盾はないのか,制度的な対応に偏りすぎていないか,などの問題に直面している.</p>

<p>  This paper aims to investigate what kinds of consequences have resulted from university reform since the 1990 s, including the reform of research activities. University reform has been driven by three kinds of philosophies or models : 1) the growth model, in which the prioritization of basic research and the expansion of graduate education formed the baseline for the transformation of university research in the early 1990 s, but which has gradually been replaced since the mid-1990 s by 2)the innovation model, which regards the relationship between science and technology on the one hand and social and economic values on the other as the most important factor in exploiting research activities with the aim of promoting national prosperity, and 3)the new-public-management model, which emphasizes administrative and fiscal efficiency.</p><p>  The preliminary results of the analysis indicate that the reform carried out in the 1990 s enhanced university research activities as a whole. However, it is not possible to identify reliable evidence confirming that reforms since 2000 have produced beneficial effects in university research. It is rather the case that the gap separating some universities from others has expanded. Many problems have been caused by the increase in the number of postdoctoral researchers, and we are now faced by several questions : whether reform driven by the "selection and concentration" principle is appropriate for the enhancement of university research, whether reforms have caused inconsistencies in the university system, and whether excessive emphasis has been placed on rule-making and system modification at the expense of operational aspects of the system.</p>

Journal

  • Japanese Journal of Higher Education Research

    Japanese Journal of Higher Education Research 12(0), 131-154, 2009

    Japanese Association of Higher Education Research

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130007649174
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA1125366X
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    特集
  • ISSN
    13440063
  • NDL Article ID
    10319715
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZF1(教育)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z71-B438
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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