大学史・高等教育史研究の10年  [in Japanese] A Decade of Research on the History of Universities and of Higher Education  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<p> 日本の高等教育を対象にした歴史研究は,10年間で約1,000点が公刊され,活況を呈した.新たな資料の発掘や研究体制の構築が進み,自校史教育も発展している.また占領文書の公開など新たな史料群は研究の発展を促進してきた.しかし,高等教育の変動を把握する理論的検討は十分ではなく,学会の活動は実践面に傾斜して,歴史研究とは乖離がある.</p><p> 日本におけるアジアを対象にした歴史研究は,高等教育研究全体が急成長しているのに比べ,あまり発展しなかった.特に,前近代の研究成果は乏しい.歴史研究が一般に低調とはいっても,中国国内では際立った発展をとげ,植民地教育に関する研究会などの組織化を背景に,東南アジアの高等教育史や植民地高等教育史,国際教育交流史は比較的発展した.また,アジアからの留学生の研究が増加し,アジア高等教育史の担い手として期待できる.</p><p> 欧米においては,欧州全体を視野に入れた比較史研究や社会史的大学史が活況を呈しているが,日本の欧米研究はやや停滞し,溝ができてしまった.新自由主義的な高等教育改革が広がって,歴史研究のような基礎学問への関心が薄れている.実践的な大学教育センターは拡大したが,教育学部の教育史ポストは,削減の対象となっている.高等教育の歴史研究が近視眼的な実践志向によって衰退し始めているとしたら,高等教育の未来も不確かなものでしかない.</p>

<p>  In this paper, the achievements and trends in research on the history of universities and higher education carried out in the past ten years in Japan have been reviewed on the basis of a tripartite division into the three geographical areas providing data for the research, that is, higher education in Japan, in other Asian countries, and in Europe and the U.S.A.</p><p>  Concerning historical studies on universities and higher education in Japan, about a thousand books and articles have been published during the period under review, evidence that the theme is attracting the interests of scholars from various disciplines. It could be said that the history of universities is now established as a sub-field of the historical sciences alongside women's history, the history of minorities, etc.</p><p>  One of the driving forces that has facilitated historical studies on universities in Japan can be idenetified as the project to write and publish a half-centenary commemorative history of universities newly founded just after the Second World War. In the process of carrying out this project, efforts were made to collect and to utilize available materials, as well as to organize a system aimed at structuring research on university history. As a result, archives on the history of a particular university were set up at many universities including several leading national ones.</p><p>  As for historical studies on higher education in other Asian countries (except China), no significant progress has been made, while on the other hand, contemporary and comparative studies on higher education have developed conspicuously. In particular, it has been almost impossible to identify any research output on higher education in the pre-modern period has been recognized. In contrast, it is interesting to note that remarkable progress has been made in historical studies on Chinese higher education.</p><p>  Among a small number of historical studies on higher education in other Asian countries except for China, pioneering research has been carried out, to some extent, on such themes as the history of South-Asian higher education, colonial higher education, the education of overseas students, and international education,. One factor which has facilitated this progress has been the organization of scholars working on the colonial education into various learned societies.</p><p>  It is also noteworthy that research output by overseas students from Asian countries has been increasing. It is expected that they will form a new generation of young researchers in the field of historical studies on Asian higher education.</p><p>  Historical studies on European and American higher education have now been established as a sub-field of the historical sciences in Europe and America. The mainstream approach has been to take a very wide approach locating the research within the context of intellectual, social and comparative history.</p><p>  On the other hand, historical studies on European and American higher education carried out during the past ten years in Japan were not always so productive, compared to the results achieved in the preceding two decades. There is now, it must be admitted, quite a wide gap in the front line of research as between Japan on the one hand and Europe and the U.S.A. on the other.</p><p>  One of the factors which can be cited as having caused this gap is the spread of a neo-liberalist perspective in recent higher education reform. The main focus in research concerning higher education has shifted rapidly from a historical approach to more practical reform-orientated aspects. The basic and fundamental disciplines such as history now tend to be neglected as non-utilitarian subjects in the Japanese academic world. Practical utilitarianism might be a key watchword in this new age of globalization, but a blight new future for higher education will not be realized without an accurate knowledge and understanding of its past.</p>

Journal

  • Japanese Journal of Higher Education Research

    Japanese Journal of Higher Education Research 10(0), 31-49, 2007

    Japanese Association of Higher Education Research

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130007649205
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA1125366X
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1344-0063
  • NDL Article ID
    8846028
  • NDL Call No.
    Z71-B438
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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