情報に対する権利の国際的保障の展開と原子力政策  [in Japanese] Recent developments in access to information under international law and their implications on Japanese nuclear policy  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<p>情報に対する権利(知る権利)は,生命に対する権利や健康に対する権利などの人権の保障に不可欠の要素である。原子力活動に関する国際規律には,影響を被るおそれのある人の情報に対する権利についての義務的な定めはない。</p><p>近年,環境情報に対する権利の国際的保障が進展している。オーフス条約では,公的機関保有情報の開示請求権と公的機関による環境情報の収集,保有,普及に対する権利を広範に保障し,人の牛命や健康に対する切迫した脅威がある緊急時においてこそ,情報に対する権利を保障する国の義務の存在を明示的に定める。他方で,人権条約の下で情報に対する権利の保障も進展し,特に,ヨーロッパ人権条約の下では,生命に対する権利や私生活・家族生活の保護に対する権利のために,国は「現実のかつ差し迫った危険」があることを了知した場合個人を保護するのに必要かつ十分な防止措置をとる積極的義務を有するとされ,その防止措置の中でも情報に対する権利に特別の重要性が置かれている。</p><p>福島第一原子力発電所事故の経験を踏まえると,緊急時における情報に対する権利の保障とそれを履行するための情報収集・普及のための制度の構築,公共サービスの民営化の動向をふまえて,公共サービスを担う民間主体が保有する必要な情報が開示され,収集され,普及される法制度の構築などが必要である。放射性物質への曝露リスクのように,不確実性を伴い,しばしば長期間経過後顕在化するリスクから人をよりよく保護するには,これらの情報に対する権利の国際的保障の到達点を踏まえて原子力に関わる政策・制度を構築することが必要である。</p>

<p>Access to information has now become an essential component of fundamental human rights such as right to life and right to health. International norms related to nuclear activities developed in the framework of IAEA do not contain mandatory rules that guarantee access to information of those likely to be affected by these activities.</p><p>Striking developments in enhancement of access to environmental information have recently been observed. Among others, 1998 Aarhus Convention obliges States to guarantee access to environmental information very extensively as well as to collect and disseminate environmental information. The Convention also explicitly provides for State's obligation to guarantee access to environmental information in the event of any imminent threat to human health or the environment. On the other hand, more importance has been placed on access to information under international human rights treaties, among others the European Convention on Human Rights. According to the case law developed by the European Court of Human Rights under the European Convention, States have the positive obligation to take preventive measures to protect individuals likely to be affected when there's a real and imminent threat in order to protect their right to life and their right to respect for private and family life. It should be noted that the European Court has placed special importance on access to information among preventive measures to be taken by States.</p><p>Experiences we had in the course of accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant suggest that Japan should take necessary measures to sufficiently guarantee access to information in emergency situation and establish a scheme for collecting and disseminating relevant information for such purpose; that it is also essential to establish a legal regime in which, in the context of privatization of public service, information held not only by public authorities but also by private entities performing public service should be collected and made available to the public. In order to provide better protection of people against risks which involve scientific uncertainty and which might be materialized after a lapse of long time, such as risk of radioactivity, it is necessary to establish a legal regime reflecting the most recentinternational developments of access to information.</p>

Journal

  • Journal of Public Policy Studies

    Journal of Public Policy Studies 14(0), 99-108, 2014

    Public Policy Studies Association Japan

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