政策実施過程の構造的文脈―NPM型行政改革と政策失敗の因果的連鎖―  [in Japanese] Structural Context of Policy Implementation: How the NPM-type Public Sector Reform Causes Policy Failure?  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<p>本稿は政策実施研究に新たな知見を加え,公共政策学の発展に多少なりとも寄与することを意図している。第一に,政策実施を規定する構造的文脈を重視する。従来の政策実施研究が「虫の目」からミクロ過程に注目してきたのに対して,本稿はミクロ過程を規定するマクロ次元の要因を「鳥の目」からとらえる。政策実施研究は,従来見過ごされてきた政策失敗のメカニズムを解明することで,学術的に大きな貢献を果たした。とくに重要な知見は,小さな出来事が政策上の大きな失敗を引き起こすことを明らかにしたことである。しかし,小さな出来事の背景には大きな出来事が隠れているかもしれない。本稿は,後者の重要性を強調する。</p><p>第二に,本稿は政策実施研究と行政管理論との接点を探る。両者の研究はこれまで乖離した状況にあったが,これに対して本稿は,NPM(New Public Management)に着目しつつ,行政管理が政策実施に及ぼす影響を考察し,そのことを通じて両者の理論的接合を図ろうと試みる。その上で,行政改革の負の効果,すなわち行政改革が政策失敗の要因の一つになっている可能性を論じる。</p><p>政策失敗の事例として待機児童問題を扱う。待機児童問題の背景にある保育士不足がNPM型行政改革によって引き起こされているのではないか。それが分析の結果から導かれる結論である。</p>

<p>The purpose of this article is to contribute to the policy studies, theoretically as well as empirically, by providing new findings concerning policy implementation and public management. First, it focuses on the structural context that constrains the conditions to implement policies. While the traditional policy implementation studies have underlined the micro process of implementation, this article analyses the macro dimensions, focusing on fundamental and structural factors, which may cause policy failure.</p><p>Second, the article also bridges the gap between the policy implementation research and the pubic management study. It moves the boundaries between these disciplines by exploring the influence of administrative management on policy implementation, focusing especially on its negative effects. It elucidates how public sector reforms based on the ideas and approaches of NPM (New Public Management) will cause policy implementation failures.</p><p>It analyses a case concerning the development of child daycare centre policy in Japan. The number of children on waiting lists for daycare centres has increased due to the rising of the female labour participation rate and dual income households. This topic has become one of the most important governmental agendas since the 1990s. The number of children on the waiting lists has not decreased so much up until now, though the central government and local municipalities have implemented public policies to improve conditions and solve problems. This study focuses on the shortage of nursery teachers who take care of children in daycare centres as one of the fundamental factors that causes the waiting list problem.</p><p>This article concludes that NPM-type public sector reforms will give rise to shortages of nursery teachers. These reforms exacerbate working conditions of nursery teachers, in particular public employees who work in public daycare centres set up and managed by local municipalities. A lot of local municipalities are under fiscal pressure to cut the costs of public child care services through privatization of public daycare centres and decreasing their new hiring as well as increasing part-time and temporally staff.</p>

Journal

  • Journal of Public Policy Studies

    Journal of Public Policy Studies 17(0), 26-39, 2017

    Public Policy Studies Association Japan

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