教育はなぜ脱政治化してきたか:―戦後史における1950年代の再検討―  [in Japanese] Why education has been depoliticized in Japan::Rethinking the politics of education in the 1950s  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<p>これまでの政治学・教育学では, 1950年代を教育において文部省対日教組による保革のイデオロギー対立が激化した時期であると捉えることが一般的であった。それに対し本論は, そうした表面上のイデオロギー対立が注目される中で, その底流ではこの時期に教育の脱政治化が進行していったことに焦点を当てて, 教育行財政の制度と地方教育行政の実態がむしろ脱政治化へと向かったことを歴史的な検証から明らかにすると同時に, 教育行財政の制度・実態だけでなく, 現場の教育実践のレベルにおいても, この時期に脱政治化の萌芽が生じてそれが進行してきたことを示した。具体的には, 教育行財政の制度面 (2節), 教育関係団体秩序の側面 (3節), そして教育運動, 教育実践の側面 (4節) から論証した。以上の作業を通じ, 1950年代の教育政治について通説とは異なる理解を提示すると同時に, 教育が政治化する陰で, 現在に至る教育の脱政治化への転換点が1950年代に埋め込まれていたことを明らかにした。</p>

<p>This paper presents a new view of the politics of education in Japan. We understand 1950s education in Japan as a highly politicized issue. On the other hand, we claim new insight into the 1950s; a high degree of politicization made depoliticization paradoxical. We also find the origin of the present "hyper-depoliticized" situation: the lack of citizenship education and political education.<br>  We analyze the process of depoliticization in the context of three cases. First, the reforms of the education board system and the allocation of teachers established coordinating mechanisms among various actors. Second, the coalitions of the education boards changed. They initially opposed the conservative education reforms, but after the late 1950s, they became depoliticized. At the same time, many principals dropped out of the teachers unions because they wanted to stay away from the conflict of the teachers' performance reviews. Third, the law of political neutrality in education suppressed teachers' political activity. In parallel, however, private educational movements (coordinated with teachers unions) also began to insist that education should be separated from politics.</p>

Journal

  • The Annuals of Japanese Political Science Association

    The Annuals of Japanese Political Science Association 67(1), 1_31-1_52, 2016

    JAPANESE POLITICAL SCIENCE ASSOCIATION

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