戦後仏語圏における「最大多数のための住まい」から「進化型住宅」への展開 ATBAT(建造者アトリエ)の国際・地域交流活動の歴史的経緯に関する研究 その2  [in Japanese] A SHIFT FROM "HABITAT POUR LE PLUS GRAND NOMBRE" TO "HABITAT ÉVOLUTIF" IN POST-WAR FRANCOPHONIE:A study on the history of international and regional exchange activity of ATBAT(Atelier des Bâtisseurs), Part 2  [in Japanese]

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Author(s)

    • 松原 康介 MATSUBARA Kosuke
    • 筑波大学システム情報系社会工学域都市計画分野国際総合学類国際開発学主専攻 Faculty of Engineering, Information and Systems, Division of Policy and Planning Sciences, University of Tsukuba

Abstract

Presupposing the ATBAT (Atelier des Bâtisseurs) as an international exchange organization, this paper considers the historical meaning and position of the exchange activities of the newborn ATBAT from the viewpoints of four key members: Vladimir Bodiansky, George Candilis, Gérald Hanning, and Gyoji Banshoya. The scope of this paper encompasses the period of their work in Morocco, via the manifestation at the Congrès International d'Architecture Moderne 9 (CIAM 9), up to the point of their separation. As a continuation of my previous paper "Part 1", I employ the same historical methods and resources herein. However, in this paper I also conduct some planning studies, for the purpose of examining how the "Housing for the Greatest Number" movement led to the "Évolutif (evolutionary)" concept, and, finally, to the planning method known as "Habitat Évolutif (Evolutionary Housing)." Important consideration is given to the ways in which this last method was concretized through the exchange of members' ideas, particularly Banshoya's. Following his struggles with Le Corbusier, and based on his experience working with Marcel Lods and Jean Bossu in African countries, Gérald Hanning became an independent urban planner. In this role, Hanning coordinated the environments around these architects' masterpieces. In 1951, ATBAT opened a branch in French Morocco, and Candilis became the director of that branch. Cooperating with Michel Ecochard who was the director of urban planning of the French protectorate government, ATBAT initiated the planning movement known as "Habitat Pour le Plus Grand Nombre (Housing for the Greatest Number)." As a well-known example, they realized their masterpiece "Nid d'Abeilles," intended to provide housing suitable for the lifestyles of Moroccan people from rural areas. They advocated this movement at CIAM 9, held in Aix-en-Provence in 1953. It was here that they suggested the idea for "Évolutif (evolutionary)" housing. In 1953, Gyoji Banshoya participated in ATBAT. Candilis was so willing to welcome him that he published Banshoya's first masterpiece, "The Square House" in L'Architecture d'Aujourd'hui. For Candilis, the square house seemed an advanced example of the idea of Habitat Évolutif. This led me to conduct some analysis of the planning for their co-research project "La Série Trèfle (Clover Series)." This endeavour was supported by C.S.T.B. and published in Techniques et Architecture in 1954. I note that the key idea of separating the skeleton and mobile partition which partly stems from the design of the square house, can be clearly seen to play an important role in the planning concept of "La Série Trèfle." Just after the project's completion, Candilis resigned from ATBAT and began his career as an independent architect with the team of Candilis-Josic-Woods. There, he profited from the idea of Habitat Évolutif. Hanning and Banshoya also left ATBAT, and moved to Algiers. The most important roles played by ATBAT were (1) expanding the idea of a new housing style suggested by Le Corbusier based on their technical research; (2) examining its applicability to the general public, including slum residents in various Francophonie cities; and (3) innovating the planning methods of Habitat Évolutif. It is the case that the beginning of this concept can already be seen in Le Corbusier's theories. However, it was ATBAT's original contribution to provide a theoretical framework, based on their field work, for the realization of Habitat Évolutif. In conclusion, I point out that these novel constructions were made possible by the international exchange activities among the young architects and planners of various origins who were members of ATBAT.

<p> Presupposing the ATBAT (<i>Atelier des Bâtisseurs</i>) as an international exchange organization, this paper considers the historical meaning and position of the exchange activities of the newborn ATBAT from the viewpoints of four key members: Vladimir Bodiansky, George Candilis, Gérald Hanning, and Gyoji Banshoya. The scope of this paper encompasses the period of their work in Morocco, via the manifestation at the <i>Congrès International d'Architecture Moderne 9</i> (CIAM 9), up to the point of their separation. As a continuation of my previous paper "Part 1", I employ the same historical methods and resources herein. However, in this paper I also conduct some planning studies, for the purpose of examining how the "Housing for the Greatest Number" movement led to the "<i>Évolutif</i> (evolutionary)" concept, and, finally, to the planning method known as "<i>Habitat Évolutif</i> (Evolutionary Housing)." Important consideration is given to the ways in which this last method was concretized through the exchange of members' ideas, particularly Banshoya's.</p><p> Following his struggles with Le Corbusier, and based on his experience working with Marcel Lods and Jean Bossu in African countries, Gérald Hanning became an independent urban planner. In this role, Hanning coordinated the environments around these architects' masterpieces.</p><p> In 1951, ATBAT opened a branch in French Morocco, and Candilis became the director of that branch. Cooperating with Michel Ecochard who was the director of urban planning of the French protectorate government, ATBAT initiated the planning movement known as "Habitat Pour le Plus Grand Nombre (Housing for the Greatest Number)." As a well-known example, they realized their masterpiece "<i>Nid d'Abeilles</i>," intended to provide housing suitable for the lifestyles of Moroccan people from rural areas. They advocated this movement at CIAM 9, held in Aix-en-Provence in 1953. It was here that they suggested the idea for "<i>Évolutif</i> (evolutionary)" housing.</p><p> In 1953, Gyoji Banshoya participated in ATBAT. Candilis was so willing to welcome him that he published Banshoya's first masterpiece, "The Square House" in <i>L'Architecture d'Aujourd'hui</i>. For Candilis, the square house seemed an advanced example of the idea of <i>Habitat Évolutif</i>.</p><p> This led me to conduct some analysis of the planning for their co-research project "<i>La Série Trèfle</i> (Clover Series)." This endeavour was supported by C.S.T.B. and published in <i>Techniques et Architecture</i> in 1954. I note that the key idea of separating the skeleton and mobile partition which partly stems from the design of the square house, can be clearly seen to play an important role in the planning concept of "<i>La Série Trèfle</i>." Just after the project's completion, Candilis resigned from ATBAT and began his career as an independent architect with the team of Candilis-Josic-Woods. There, he profited from the idea of <i>Habitat Évolutif</i>. Hanning and Banshoya also left ATBAT, and moved to Algiers.</p><p> The most important roles played by ATBAT were (1) expanding the idea of a new housing style suggested by Le Corbusier based on their technical research; (2) examining its applicability to the general public, including slum residents in various Francophonie cities; and (3) innovating the planning methods of <i>Habitat Évolutif</i>. It is the case that the beginning of this concept can already be seen in Le Corbusier's theories. However, it was ATBAT's original contribution to provide a theoretical framework, based on their field work, for the realization of <i>Habitat Évolutif</i>. In conclusion, I point out that these novel constructions were made possible by the international exchange activities among the young architects and planners of various origins who were members of ATBAT.</p>

Journal

  • Journal of Architecture and Planning (Transactions of AIJ)

    Journal of Architecture and Planning (Transactions of AIJ) (760), 1473-1483, 2019-06

    Architectural Institute of Japan

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130007670349
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN10438548
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    journal article
  • ISSN
    1340-4210
  • NDL Article ID
    029707047
  • NDL Call No.
    Z16-107
  • Data Source
    NDL  IR  J-STAGE  AIJ 
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