感覚の理論と社会の理論:日本社会学史における元良勇次郎  [in Japanese] Yujiro Motora and His Role in the History of Japanese Sociology::The Interplay between Sociology and Experimental Psychology in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<p>明治期に活躍した元良勇次郎は, 東京帝国大学で初めての心理学担当教授であり, 心理学実験室の開設に尽力するなど, 一般的には日本における近代心理学の祖として知られている. しかしながら, アメリカ留学中の学位論文において, 元良は社会学に焦点を当てたことがわかっており, 帰国後も黎明期の社会学や社会心理学, 社会調査について論文を執筆するとともに, 1898年には社会学研究会の設立に発起人として加わるなど, 一貫して学術分野としての社会学の確立に貢献した.</p><p>本稿では, これまで比較的知られてこなかった元良の活動の社会学的な側面に焦点を当て, 膨大な業績のなかからその「社会の学」の構想を再構成することを目指す. 社会学史において元良が果たした役割は, アメリカ社会学を中心とする心理学的社会学, および統計を用いた実証的な研究手法の導入といえるだろう. 元良の構想において, 実験心理学と社会学, 感覚の理論と社会の理論は, ともに総合的な「社会の学」のなかに位置づけられる. こうした元良の立場は, 当時の主流派を形成していた建部遯吾らの国家主義的な社会有機体説に対し批判的な役割を果たした. 日本における最初期の社会調査の実施にも尽力し, また社会学研究会等を通じて後進の育成に努めたことも考え合わせるならば, 「日本社会学の源流の1つ」として, 元良の業績を位置づけることが可能である.</p>

<p>Yujiro Motora (1858-1912) was the first professor of psychology at Tokyo Imperial University, and is known as the pioneer of Modern Psychology in Japan. However, his Ph.D. dissertation, titled "Exchange, considered as the principle of social life," submitted to Johns Hopkins University in 1888, focused on social science and sociology. Moreover, he wrote numerous papers on sociology, social psychology, and social surveys after his return from the United States, and in the end, joined the important Japanese association for sociology in the Meiji period, "Society for the Study of Sociology (<i>syakaigaku kenkyukai</i>)," as one of its founders in 1898.</p><p>In this article, I will focus on an as-yet-unknown aspect of the sociological work of Motora, and try to reconstruct his concept of the "science of society" from the fragments of his voluminous writings. I will examine Motora's role in early Japanese sociology, in outline, and give an introduction to the idea of psychological sociology and empirical research methods based on statistics. In his incomplete conception, both experimental psychology and sociology, or the theory of sense and the theory of society, are situated within a comprehensive "science of society." His stance functioned as a critical comment on mainstream sociology of those days, such as Tongo Takebe's curious contamination of his nationalistic sociology and Herbert Spencer's concept of society as an organism. Further, he endeavored to conduct the earliest stages of social surveys in Japan, and was influential on younger sociologists.</p><p>My research shows that, while Yujiro Motora was called a "pioneer of Japanese psychology" in previous research, his achievement should be evaluated as "one of the sources of Japanese sociology.".</p>

Journal

  • Japanese Sociological Review

    Japanese Sociological Review 69(2), 179-195, 2018

    The Japan Sociological Society

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130007719979
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00109823
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Journal Type
    大学紀要
  • ISSN
    0021-5414
  • NDL Article ID
    029313013
  • NDL Call No.
    Z6-265
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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