積雪寒冷地における保育園の津波集団避難——北海道釧路市における認可保育園を事例に——  [in Japanese] Tsunami Group Evacuations of Nursery Schools in Cold, Snowy Areas: Case Study of Licensed Nursery Schools in Kushiro, Hokkaido  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<p>本研究は東日本大震災以降の津波浸水想定の変更を踏まえて,積雪寒冷地の認可保育園における集団避難の取組みに関する現状と課題を検討した.対象地域には,積雪寒冷地である北海道道東地域において津波浸水想定域内の人口が最多となる釧路市を選出した.釧路市の認可保育園を対象とした聞取り調査から,移動面と運営面に関する次の課題が明らかになった.移動面の課題は,避難先まで長距離の移動を要する保育園がみられる点であり,冬季には積雪や路面凍結により歩行速度や避難効率が低下し,避難時間が増大することであった.運営面の課題は,東日本大震災以降,避難先に指定された高層建築物は暖房設備を十分に備えておらず,冬季には低温環境で乳幼児を長時間待機させなくてはならないことであった.さらに,郊外の保育園は市街地中心部の保育園と比較して,冬季の積雪や路面凍結,低温の影響を受けやすく,避難困難の問題は深刻度を増す可能性が指摘された.</p>

<p>Childcare research in geography has investigated the relationship between guardians picking up children and daily activities, as well as the management of nursery schools. There have, however, been few studies dealing with unusual, unexpected daily life events and childcare. In Japan, concerns about tsunamis have increased, and it is thought that evacuations in cold, snowy areas would pose special difficulties. The purpose of this study was to understand the situation around and problems related to tsunamis and group evacuations from licensed nursery schools in a cold, snowy area. The area selected for the study formerly belonged to Kushiro municipality in Hokkaido and is a cold, snowy, tsunami inundation-prone area with a large population.</p><p>There are 25 licensed nursery schools in this area, and of these 18 are now located in areas of potential inundation by tsunamis according to the guidelines for the probability of inundation. Among these nursery schools, this study focused on nine that are expected to be subject to more than 6.0 m of inundation if tsunamis occur.</p><p>First, comparing the places planned to serve as refuges before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake, the number of stories of buildings suitable as shelters has increased, resulting in the availability of fewer public facilities. Next, childcare activities that may be expected to affect the evacuation are walking to and from the nurseries and activities while attending them. The problem with group evacuations on foot is in their organization, and that with the return home from the nursery school is a shortage of potential helpers.</p><p>In conclusion, two problems related to winter evacuations in a cold, snowy area were identified. First, there are few high-rise buildings around nursery schools, and when long-distance evacuation is necessary, it should be assumed that achieving it rapidly is impossible because walking speed decreases with snow coverage or road surface freezing. Second, when there is no heating in a shelter where infants may have to remain in cold conditions, it is likely that they will become ill. Nursery schools are therefore requesting that the local government provide extensions of the planned shelters and installation of heating equipment in them.</p><p>From the above, this study points to more difficulties in tsunami evacuations of nursery schools in cold, snowy areas in winter than in summer. To resolve these difficulties, rescue and assistance by the local government to optimize the self-help available to nursery schools with mutual aid provided by local residents are needed.</p>

Journal

  • Geographical review of Japan series A

    Geographical review of Japan series A 88(6), 571-590, 2015

    The Association of Japanese Geographers

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130007724204
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA11591990
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1883-4388
  • NDL Article ID
    026914135
  • NDL Call No.
    Z8-571
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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