就学前の発達障害児に対する「授業参加」支援プログラムの開発と評価  [in Japanese] Evaluation of a Class-Participation Program for Preschool Children With Developmental Disabilities  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<p>本研究では、次年度就学する発達障害児2名に「授業参加」支援プログラムを実施し、その効果を検討した。「就学に向けた100項目チェックリスト」を用いたアセスメントの結果、両児ともに挙手や質問に答えるなどの授業参加行動は身に付いているものの、適切な行動の生起頻度が低く、授業に関係のない逸脱行動・発言がみられる場面が多かった。そこで、本プログラムでは見通しをもたせる状況設定に加え、先生役・サポート役の役割を明確化し、あらゆる授業参加行動・発言、特に姿勢を保持する行動に対して、具体的かつ即時的に強化を与えた。その結果、両参加児の授業関連行動・発言の生起率が増加し、授業逸脱行動・発言が減少した。また、大声を出す行動や離席は、介入後のセッションではほとんどみられなくなった。さらに、社会的妥当性の評価の結果、プログラム前後で参加児の授業態度に望ましい変容がみられたことが、第三者評価からも示された。</p>

<p>The social environment of elementary school is vastly different from that of kindergarten. First-grade children are likely to have diffıculty adapting to those differences, as seen in their academic performance and communication. They express this by, for example, leaving the classroom without permission during class and having conflicts with their classmates. A possible way to ease the transition to fırst grade is to implement consistent support of children before they enter elementary school. The present study evaluates effects of a class-participation program to support 2 preschool children with developmental disabilities. A comprehensive assessment found that both children had already acquired class participation behaviors. However, the frequency of occurrence of the appropriate behaviors was low, and inappropriate behavior and irrelevant remarks during class often occurred. Therefore, the intervention program focused on the following: (a) establishing an environmental setting that resembled the elementary school classroom, (b) clarifying the teachers' and supporters' roles, and (c) giving defınite and immediate reinforcement for all class participation behavior. During the intervention, the rate of occurrence of active participation in the class increased. After the intervention, the participants maintained correct behavior during class. Furthermore, the problem behaviors of speaking in a loud voice and standing up inappropriately in the classroom were not observed in the post-intervention period. On a measure of social validity, teachers and supporters reported that the children's attitude toward participating in the class had signifıcantly improved. These results suggest that the class-participation support program may have been effective in promoting appropriate behavior in class in 2 children with developmental disabilities.</p>

Journal

  • The Japanese Journal of Special Education

    The Japanese Journal of Special Education 56(3), 125-134, 2018

    The Japanese Association of Special Education

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130007757264
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00172513
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0387-3374
  • NDL Article ID
    029622060
  • NDL Call No.
    Z7-314
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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