第二次世界大戦後のポーランドにおける幻の国土計画と中心地理論  [in Japanese] Central place theory and the lost national land planning of Poland after World War II  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<p>第二次世界大戦終戦直後のポーランドでは,Christaller(1933)に忠実に従った中心地理論の実証研究ならびに応用研究が行なわれた.いずれの研究も,中央空間計画局立案の国土計画に盛り込まれた中心地配置計画に直接,間接関係するものであった.しかし,1940 年代末に本格的社会主義政権が樹立され,国土計画の実施が中止されるとともに,マルクス経済学者から,中心地配置案の理論的基礎をなす中心地理論に対して批判がなされた.他方,中心地配置案が完成した頃,Christaller はポーランドに招かれた.その際,Christaller は,求めに応じて,ドイツ編入東部地域(ポーランド西部)の中心集落再配置案作成過程で得た知見を披歴した可能性がある.そして,彼のポーランド訪問は,戦時中に執筆されていた未発表の研究をChristaller(1950)としてまとめる契機ともなった.</p>

<p>The purpose of this paper is to examine how German central place theory (Christaller 1933) was taken up in the People's Republic of Poland in the late 1940s, after the country had been liberated from Nazi German occupation in World War II. This delicate issue has not been discussed in the geography literature of Western countries. Thus, the analysis in this paper is chiefly based on Polish literature, in which the terms Osiedle usługowe, Ośrodek usługowy, Osiedle miejskie, and Ośrodek miejski are generally used as synonyms for "central place", though Ośrodek centralny might be a more accurate Polish equivalent. As early as 1947, when central place studies were not yet well developed even in Western countries, Bromek (1947) classified the central places of Poland into 9 hierarchies according to the K=3 system of Christaller's central place theory, and clarified a hierarchical structure in the Kraków voivodship (Figs. 1-3). His study was closely related to the spatial planning of a settlement location at the voivodship level. The same project was then proceeding at the national level as part of a national land planning initiative, begun after World War II by the National Office of Spatial Planning attached to the Polish Ministry of Reconstruction. The project involved the formulation of two plans for locating central places across the country: the first (Fig. 4) was compiled into <i>Studium planu krajowego I</i> (Studies for the National Plan I) (1947) and was led by Dziewoński, the main researcher; and the other (Fig. 5), <i>Studium planu krajowego II </i>(Studies for the National Plan II) (1948), was made by Kostrowicki. Two points are noteworthy here: 1) the areal sizes of the spheres of influence of the central places assumed by Dziewoński and Wejchert (1947), on which Dziewoński's plan was based, are the same as those of complementary regions in Christaller (1933); 2) the assumed radii of the spheres of influence in Kostrowicki's plan accurately correspond with the ranges of the complementary regions of B- to L-level central places in Christaller (1933). Although only the locations of the central places of middle-level or above were mapped in both plans, nine hierarchies were recognized by the K=3 central place system. Considering the situation of Poland at that time, however, the author thinks that it is not accurate to presume nine hierarchies in the central place system, but that seven or eight would be more reasonable for no central place is actually identified as that of the VIII level in Bromek (1947). Furthermore, the lowest-level central place (Zespół domów) assumed by Dziewoński and Wejchert (1947) is not characteristic of a place that serves as the center of the surrounding areas, and the second lowest-level central place (Osiedle pojedyncze) seems to be an auxiliary one.</p>

Journal

  • Urban Geography

    Urban Geography 12(0), 1-32, 2017

    Japanese Urban Geography

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130007794667
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA12476874
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1880-9499
  • NDL Article ID
    028312921
  • NDL Call No.
    Z71-R125
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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